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Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.

Lafuente H, Pazos MR, Alvarez A, Mohammed N, Santos M, Arizti M, Alvarez FJ, Martinez-Orgado JA - Front Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult.Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio.The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neonatology Research Group, Biocruces Health Research Institute Bizkaia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of the treatments on the characteristics of excitotoxicity. (A) A representative brain spectra from a hypoxic-ischemic animal managed with normothermia (NV group). Arrows show the metabolite peaks of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lac). (B) Bars represent the results of Glu/NAA ratio (mean ± SEM), in brain samples from 1- to 2-day-old piglets after hypoxic-ischemic insult, treated with normothermia or hypothermia and administered with either vehicle or cannabidiol. (*) P < 0.05 vs. NV group by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance; (***) P < 0.05 vs. all groups by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance.
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Figure 2: Effect of the treatments on the characteristics of excitotoxicity. (A) A representative brain spectra from a hypoxic-ischemic animal managed with normothermia (NV group). Arrows show the metabolite peaks of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lac). (B) Bars represent the results of Glu/NAA ratio (mean ± SEM), in brain samples from 1- to 2-day-old piglets after hypoxic-ischemic insult, treated with normothermia or hypothermia and administered with either vehicle or cannabidiol. (*) P < 0.05 vs. NV group by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance; (***) P < 0.05 vs. all groups by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance.

Mentions: The Glu/NAA ratio was higher in the NV group than in the HV group (Figure 2). Cannabidiol treatment alone (NC group) reduced Glu/NAA ratio to a similar extent compared to the levels in HV group. The administration of both therapies (hypothermia and CBD) together produced additive effects, so the Glu/NAA ratio in the HC group was lower to that observed in HV or NC groups.


Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.

Lafuente H, Pazos MR, Alvarez A, Mohammed N, Santos M, Arizti M, Alvarez FJ, Martinez-Orgado JA - Front Neurosci (2016)

Effect of the treatments on the characteristics of excitotoxicity. (A) A representative brain spectra from a hypoxic-ischemic animal managed with normothermia (NV group). Arrows show the metabolite peaks of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lac). (B) Bars represent the results of Glu/NAA ratio (mean ± SEM), in brain samples from 1- to 2-day-old piglets after hypoxic-ischemic insult, treated with normothermia or hypothermia and administered with either vehicle or cannabidiol. (*) P < 0.05 vs. NV group by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance; (***) P < 0.05 vs. all groups by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940392&req=5

Figure 2: Effect of the treatments on the characteristics of excitotoxicity. (A) A representative brain spectra from a hypoxic-ischemic animal managed with normothermia (NV group). Arrows show the metabolite peaks of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lac). (B) Bars represent the results of Glu/NAA ratio (mean ± SEM), in brain samples from 1- to 2-day-old piglets after hypoxic-ischemic insult, treated with normothermia or hypothermia and administered with either vehicle or cannabidiol. (*) P < 0.05 vs. NV group by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance; (***) P < 0.05 vs. all groups by Kruskall-Wallis one-factorial analysis of variance.
Mentions: The Glu/NAA ratio was higher in the NV group than in the HV group (Figure 2). Cannabidiol treatment alone (NC group) reduced Glu/NAA ratio to a similar extent compared to the levels in HV group. The administration of both therapies (hypothermia and CBD) together produced additive effects, so the Glu/NAA ratio in the HC group was lower to that observed in HV or NC groups.

Bottom Line: Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult.Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio.The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neonatology Research Group, Biocruces Health Research Institute Bizkaia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus