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Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences.

Alcorta-Garza A, San-Martín M, Delgado-Bolton R, Soler-González J, Roig H, Vivanco L - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.001).The results reveal the importance of culture in the development of medical empathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Service of Oncology, University Hospital Jose E. Gonzalez - Autonomous University of Nuevo León Monterrey, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners.

Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.

Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The findings support the underlying factor structure of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE). The results reveal the importance of culture in the development of medical empathy. The cross-cultural differences described could open gates for further lines of medical education research.

No MeSH data available.


Comparative analysis of the 3-factor structure of the JSE among the Spanish physicians living in Spain (G1), the Latin-American physicians living in Spain (G2), and the Latin-American physicians living in Latin-America (G3); *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
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Figure 1: Comparative analysis of the 3-factor structure of the JSE among the Spanish physicians living in Spain (G1), the Latin-American physicians living in Spain (G2), and the Latin-American physicians living in Latin-America (G3); *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.

Mentions: Socio-demographic group comparisons revealed important cross-cultural differences (p < 0.001). The Spanish group obtained the highest global empathy scores, followed by the group of Latin American physicians with cross-cultural exchange experience in Spain. The group of physicians who had never left Latin America obtained the lowest global empathy scores. The comparison of the underlying factors of the JSE revealed significant differences in descending order of magnitude for “compassion care” (p < 0.001), “standing/walking in the patient's shoes” (p < 0.001), and “perspective taking” (p = 0.04), as can be observed in Figure 1.


Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences.

Alcorta-Garza A, San-Martín M, Delgado-Bolton R, Soler-González J, Roig H, Vivanco L - Front Psychol (2016)

Comparative analysis of the 3-factor structure of the JSE among the Spanish physicians living in Spain (G1), the Latin-American physicians living in Spain (G2), and the Latin-American physicians living in Latin-America (G3); *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940391&req=5

Figure 1: Comparative analysis of the 3-factor structure of the JSE among the Spanish physicians living in Spain (G1), the Latin-American physicians living in Spain (G2), and the Latin-American physicians living in Latin-America (G3); *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.
Mentions: Socio-demographic group comparisons revealed important cross-cultural differences (p < 0.001). The Spanish group obtained the highest global empathy scores, followed by the group of Latin American physicians with cross-cultural exchange experience in Spain. The group of physicians who had never left Latin America obtained the lowest global empathy scores. The comparison of the underlying factors of the JSE revealed significant differences in descending order of magnitude for “compassion care” (p < 0.001), “standing/walking in the patient's shoes” (p < 0.001), and “perspective taking” (p = 0.04), as can be observed in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.001).The results reveal the importance of culture in the development of medical empathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Service of Oncology, University Hospital Jose E. Gonzalez - Autonomous University of Nuevo León Monterrey, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners.

Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.

Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The findings support the underlying factor structure of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE). The results reveal the importance of culture in the development of medical empathy. The cross-cultural differences described could open gates for further lines of medical education research.

No MeSH data available.