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Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology.

Lütz-Meindl U - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction.It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation.This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology Division, Cell Biology Department, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell shape malformations of growing Micrasterias cells treated with the cholinergic antagonist D-tubacurarine (A) and with the agonist nicotine (B) during growth (scale bars are 30 μm). Reprinted with permission from Schiechl et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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Figure 6: Cell shape malformations of growing Micrasterias cells treated with the cholinergic antagonist D-tubacurarine (A) and with the agonist nicotine (B) during growth (scale bars are 30 μm). Reprinted with permission from Schiechl et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Mentions: Acetylcholine, one of the best investigated neurotransmitter in animal cells which has also been detected in moss, ferns and higher plants (Miura and Shih, 1984; Tretyn and Kendrick, 1991) has been also shown to be involved in growth and differentiation of Micrasterias (Schiechl et al., 2008). Micrasterias was the first unicellular alga in which a light-dependent production of acetylcholine has been proved by HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry. Both, cholinergic agonists (carbachol, nicotine) and antagonists (D-tubocurarine, hexamethonium) inhibited cell growth and evoked substantial cell shape aberrations when applied to early developmental stages (Figures 6A,B). Particularly the classic acetylcholine-receptor agonist nicotine additionally suppressed formation of the secondary cell wall. The presence of cholinergic receptors in Micrasterias was concluded from these results. They are obviously involved in growth of this alga and thus, like in higher plant cells, represent a basis for light induced differentiation (Schiechl et al., 2008).


Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology.

Lütz-Meindl U - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Cell shape malformations of growing Micrasterias cells treated with the cholinergic antagonist D-tubacurarine (A) and with the agonist nicotine (B) during growth (scale bars are 30 μm). Reprinted with permission from Schiechl et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940373&req=5

Figure 6: Cell shape malformations of growing Micrasterias cells treated with the cholinergic antagonist D-tubacurarine (A) and with the agonist nicotine (B) during growth (scale bars are 30 μm). Reprinted with permission from Schiechl et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Mentions: Acetylcholine, one of the best investigated neurotransmitter in animal cells which has also been detected in moss, ferns and higher plants (Miura and Shih, 1984; Tretyn and Kendrick, 1991) has been also shown to be involved in growth and differentiation of Micrasterias (Schiechl et al., 2008). Micrasterias was the first unicellular alga in which a light-dependent production of acetylcholine has been proved by HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry. Both, cholinergic agonists (carbachol, nicotine) and antagonists (D-tubocurarine, hexamethonium) inhibited cell growth and evoked substantial cell shape aberrations when applied to early developmental stages (Figures 6A,B). Particularly the classic acetylcholine-receptor agonist nicotine additionally suppressed formation of the secondary cell wall. The presence of cholinergic receptors in Micrasterias was concluded from these results. They are obviously involved in growth of this alga and thus, like in higher plant cells, represent a basis for light induced differentiation (Schiechl et al., 2008).

Bottom Line: The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction.It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation.This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology Division, Cell Biology Department, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus