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Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology.

Lütz-Meindl U - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction.It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation.This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology Division, Cell Biology Department, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immuno labeling of growing Micrasterias cells by monoclonal anti-AGP antibody JIM13. (A) Labeling of the primary wall of both growing semicells (asterisks) visualized in CLSM. The non-growing secondary walls of the old semicells (upper and lower part are not labeled). Scale bar is 50 μm. (B) TEM micrograph showing labeling of primary wall (PW) and two different vesicle populations indicated by asterisks and arrows (scale bar is 0.5 μm). Reprinted with permission from Eder et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Phycological Society of America.
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Figure 3: Immuno labeling of growing Micrasterias cells by monoclonal anti-AGP antibody JIM13. (A) Labeling of the primary wall of both growing semicells (asterisks) visualized in CLSM. The non-growing secondary walls of the old semicells (upper and lower part are not labeled). Scale bar is 50 μm. (B) TEM micrograph showing labeling of primary wall (PW) and two different vesicle populations indicated by asterisks and arrows (scale bar is 0.5 μm). Reprinted with permission from Eder et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Phycological Society of America.

Mentions: The labeling pattern of AGPs by the antibodies JIM8, JIM13 and JIM14 both by immunofluorescence in CLSM and by immunogold labeling in TEM (Figures 3A,B) in the primary cell wall suggests an involvement of the recognized AGP type 2 proteoglucans (see Knox et al., 1991; Yates et al., 1996) in cell development of Micrasterias (Eder et al., 2008). However, their distribution did not correlate with the cell pattern. The properties of the epitopes recognized at immunodot- and Western blots suggest a similar molecular weight of the AGPs in Micrasterias as those of higher plants (Eder et al., 2008). They are rich in galactose and xylose but in contrast to higher plants do not bind to a synthetic glycoside, the β-GlcY reagent (Yariv et al., 1962, 1967) which is generally used for their identification.


Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology.

Lütz-Meindl U - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Immuno labeling of growing Micrasterias cells by monoclonal anti-AGP antibody JIM13. (A) Labeling of the primary wall of both growing semicells (asterisks) visualized in CLSM. The non-growing secondary walls of the old semicells (upper and lower part are not labeled). Scale bar is 50 μm. (B) TEM micrograph showing labeling of primary wall (PW) and two different vesicle populations indicated by asterisks and arrows (scale bar is 0.5 μm). Reprinted with permission from Eder et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Phycological Society of America.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940373&req=5

Figure 3: Immuno labeling of growing Micrasterias cells by monoclonal anti-AGP antibody JIM13. (A) Labeling of the primary wall of both growing semicells (asterisks) visualized in CLSM. The non-growing secondary walls of the old semicells (upper and lower part are not labeled). Scale bar is 50 μm. (B) TEM micrograph showing labeling of primary wall (PW) and two different vesicle populations indicated by asterisks and arrows (scale bar is 0.5 μm). Reprinted with permission from Eder et al. (2008), Copyright© 2008 Phycological Society of America.
Mentions: The labeling pattern of AGPs by the antibodies JIM8, JIM13 and JIM14 both by immunofluorescence in CLSM and by immunogold labeling in TEM (Figures 3A,B) in the primary cell wall suggests an involvement of the recognized AGP type 2 proteoglucans (see Knox et al., 1991; Yates et al., 1996) in cell development of Micrasterias (Eder et al., 2008). However, their distribution did not correlate with the cell pattern. The properties of the epitopes recognized at immunodot- and Western blots suggest a similar molecular weight of the AGPs in Micrasterias as those of higher plants (Eder et al., 2008). They are rich in galactose and xylose but in contrast to higher plants do not bind to a synthetic glycoside, the β-GlcY reagent (Yariv et al., 1962, 1967) which is generally used for their identification.

Bottom Line: The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction.It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation.This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Physiology Division, Cell Biology Department, University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus