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Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents.

Rodán A, Contreras MJ, Elosúa MR, Gimeno P - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24).Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample.These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEU-San Pablo UniversityMadrid, Spain; Universidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaMadrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example items from the Mental Rotation Training Program (MRTP). In all examples, the first stimulus is rotated 180° and the second stimulus is flipped over the X axis with respect to the target.
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Figure 1: Example items from the Mental Rotation Training Program (MRTP). In all examples, the first stimulus is rotated 180° and the second stimulus is flipped over the X axis with respect to the target.

Mentions: In order to adequately adapt the MR task to a design suitable to our purposes – age group of interest and calibration of some of the factors of the task – a pilot study was performed. The stimuli were designed specifically for the study using the Corel Draw Graphics Suite X3 computer software. Each slide consisted of: (i) a target that simulates an empty mold located on the left side of the slide and inside a gray box, and (ii) another two figures located on the right side, listed as “1” and “2”, which have the same shape as the target, but with a specific filling and are orientated differently from each other and the target. The figures have a flat perspective with geometric or linear shapes (Figure 1). The task requires the subject to imagine rotations to decide whether either of the two stimuli “1” and “2” on the right fit into the target on the left when they are turned or rotated (not flipped or mirrored). In each slide, either only one of the figures, both figures or none of the figures will fit into the target mold after being turned or rotated (these possibilities were counterbalanced in each session). The orientation of the rotated figures could be 90°, 180° or 270°, and the figures that do not fit the target were flipped across the X axis, the Y axis, the X axis plus an additional 90° rotation or the axis X plus an additional 270° rotation. All these were counterbalanced across sessions. Furthermore, the difficulty within each session and between sessions was increased by manipulating the degrees of rotation and the complexity of the stimuli.


Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents.

Rodán A, Contreras MJ, Elosúa MR, Gimeno P - Front Psychol (2016)

Example items from the Mental Rotation Training Program (MRTP). In all examples, the first stimulus is rotated 180° and the second stimulus is flipped over the X axis with respect to the target.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940366&req=5

Figure 1: Example items from the Mental Rotation Training Program (MRTP). In all examples, the first stimulus is rotated 180° and the second stimulus is flipped over the X axis with respect to the target.
Mentions: In order to adequately adapt the MR task to a design suitable to our purposes – age group of interest and calibration of some of the factors of the task – a pilot study was performed. The stimuli were designed specifically for the study using the Corel Draw Graphics Suite X3 computer software. Each slide consisted of: (i) a target that simulates an empty mold located on the left side of the slide and inside a gray box, and (ii) another two figures located on the right side, listed as “1” and “2”, which have the same shape as the target, but with a specific filling and are orientated differently from each other and the target. The figures have a flat perspective with geometric or linear shapes (Figure 1). The task requires the subject to imagine rotations to decide whether either of the two stimuli “1” and “2” on the right fit into the target on the left when they are turned or rotated (not flipped or mirrored). In each slide, either only one of the figures, both figures or none of the figures will fit into the target mold after being turned or rotated (these possibilities were counterbalanced in each session). The orientation of the rotated figures could be 90°, 180° or 270°, and the figures that do not fit the target were flipped across the X axis, the Y axis, the X axis plus an additional 90° rotation or the axis X plus an additional 270° rotation. All these were counterbalanced across sessions. Furthermore, the difficulty within each session and between sessions was increased by manipulating the degrees of rotation and the complexity of the stimuli.

Bottom Line: The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24).Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample.These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CEU-San Pablo UniversityMadrid, Spain; Universidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaMadrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus