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Delineation of attenuation of oxidative stress and mutagenic stress by Murraya exotica L. leaves.

Kaur D, Kaur A, Arora S - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g.It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays.Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Murraya exotica L., a member of family Rutaceae is rich in biologically active secondary metabolites and also known for its ethnobotanical importance. With this in mind, the plant was chosen and leaves were extracted sequentially to obtain ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. The extract/fractions were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content by spectrophotometric methods. The UHPLC technique was employed for profiling the different polyphenolic compounds present in the extract/fractions. Furthermore, the extract/fractions were analysed for the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities using different in vitro assays.

Results: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g. Likewise, UHPLC method also showed maximum number as well as amount of polyphenolic compounds in ethyl acetate fraction. It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays. In Ames assay, ethyl acetate fraction again showed maximum antimutagenic activity of 97.70 % against the 2-aminofluorene mutagen in TA100 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

Conclusion: Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen. The maximum bioactivities of the ethyl acetate fraction may be linked to the presence of high number of polyphenolic compounds as shown by spectrophotometric as well as UHPLC methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphical representation of antimutagenic activity of ethanol extract (a), hexane (b), chloroform (c), ethyl acetate (d), n-butanol (e), aqueous fractions (f) for TA98 strain of S. typhimurium showing the comparison between co- and pre-incubation in the absence as well as presence of S9 mix in AMES assay. Data represented is the mean of % antimutagenic activity ± SE of the triplicates. Means followed by same letters are not significantly different and followed by different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05 using HSD Multiple comparison test. Letter followed by “asterisk” shows the mean of % inhibition ± SE of the triplicates in the presence of S9 mix
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Fig4: Graphical representation of antimutagenic activity of ethanol extract (a), hexane (b), chloroform (c), ethyl acetate (d), n-butanol (e), aqueous fractions (f) for TA98 strain of S. typhimurium showing the comparison between co- and pre-incubation in the absence as well as presence of S9 mix in AMES assay. Data represented is the mean of % antimutagenic activity ± SE of the triplicates. Means followed by same letters are not significantly different and followed by different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05 using HSD Multiple comparison test. Letter followed by “asterisk” shows the mean of % inhibition ± SE of the triplicates in the presence of S9 mix

Mentions: Against TA98, the antimutagenic response of chloroform fraction was found to be significant with 74.04 % decrease in NaN3-induced mutagenicity and 96.31 % decrease in 2-AF-induced mutagenicity (Fig. 4c). Linear regression was found to be strong with S9 (R2 = 0.938) as compared to without S9 (R2 = 0.920). On the contrary, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly (p ≤ 0.005) decrease the number of His+ revertants induced by sodium azide by 49.07 % (R2 = 0.934) and 2-AF by 97.70 % (R2 = 0.991, highest among all extract/fractions) for TA100 as depicted in Fig. 5d. The antimutagenic effect was found to be more pronounced in pre-incubation than co-incubation in the presence of S9 mix (Figs. 4, 5). The linear regression analysis showed the presence of strong correlation between the extract/fraction dose and antimutagenic response against the mutagen with the R2 value ranges from 0.701 to 0.991. The whole experimentation was also scrutinized statically for interaction and difference by two-way ANOVA which showed the significant difference between the different concentrations as well as different modes of experimentations (Pre and co-incubation mode) at 5 % level of significance.Fig. 4


Delineation of attenuation of oxidative stress and mutagenic stress by Murraya exotica L. leaves.

Kaur D, Kaur A, Arora S - Springerplus (2016)

Graphical representation of antimutagenic activity of ethanol extract (a), hexane (b), chloroform (c), ethyl acetate (d), n-butanol (e), aqueous fractions (f) for TA98 strain of S. typhimurium showing the comparison between co- and pre-incubation in the absence as well as presence of S9 mix in AMES assay. Data represented is the mean of % antimutagenic activity ± SE of the triplicates. Means followed by same letters are not significantly different and followed by different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05 using HSD Multiple comparison test. Letter followed by “asterisk” shows the mean of % inhibition ± SE of the triplicates in the presence of S9 mix
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940350&req=5

Fig4: Graphical representation of antimutagenic activity of ethanol extract (a), hexane (b), chloroform (c), ethyl acetate (d), n-butanol (e), aqueous fractions (f) for TA98 strain of S. typhimurium showing the comparison between co- and pre-incubation in the absence as well as presence of S9 mix in AMES assay. Data represented is the mean of % antimutagenic activity ± SE of the triplicates. Means followed by same letters are not significantly different and followed by different letters are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05 using HSD Multiple comparison test. Letter followed by “asterisk” shows the mean of % inhibition ± SE of the triplicates in the presence of S9 mix
Mentions: Against TA98, the antimutagenic response of chloroform fraction was found to be significant with 74.04 % decrease in NaN3-induced mutagenicity and 96.31 % decrease in 2-AF-induced mutagenicity (Fig. 4c). Linear regression was found to be strong with S9 (R2 = 0.938) as compared to without S9 (R2 = 0.920). On the contrary, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly (p ≤ 0.005) decrease the number of His+ revertants induced by sodium azide by 49.07 % (R2 = 0.934) and 2-AF by 97.70 % (R2 = 0.991, highest among all extract/fractions) for TA100 as depicted in Fig. 5d. The antimutagenic effect was found to be more pronounced in pre-incubation than co-incubation in the presence of S9 mix (Figs. 4, 5). The linear regression analysis showed the presence of strong correlation between the extract/fraction dose and antimutagenic response against the mutagen with the R2 value ranges from 0.701 to 0.991. The whole experimentation was also scrutinized statically for interaction and difference by two-way ANOVA which showed the significant difference between the different concentrations as well as different modes of experimentations (Pre and co-incubation mode) at 5 % level of significance.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g.It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays.Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Murraya exotica L., a member of family Rutaceae is rich in biologically active secondary metabolites and also known for its ethnobotanical importance. With this in mind, the plant was chosen and leaves were extracted sequentially to obtain ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. The extract/fractions were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content by spectrophotometric methods. The UHPLC technique was employed for profiling the different polyphenolic compounds present in the extract/fractions. Furthermore, the extract/fractions were analysed for the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities using different in vitro assays.

Results: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g. Likewise, UHPLC method also showed maximum number as well as amount of polyphenolic compounds in ethyl acetate fraction. It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays. In Ames assay, ethyl acetate fraction again showed maximum antimutagenic activity of 97.70 % against the 2-aminofluorene mutagen in TA100 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

Conclusion: Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen. The maximum bioactivities of the ethyl acetate fraction may be linked to the presence of high number of polyphenolic compounds as shown by spectrophotometric as well as UHPLC methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus