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Delineation of attenuation of oxidative stress and mutagenic stress by Murraya exotica L. leaves.

Kaur D, Kaur A, Arora S - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g.It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays.Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Murraya exotica L., a member of family Rutaceae is rich in biologically active secondary metabolites and also known for its ethnobotanical importance. With this in mind, the plant was chosen and leaves were extracted sequentially to obtain ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. The extract/fractions were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content by spectrophotometric methods. The UHPLC technique was employed for profiling the different polyphenolic compounds present in the extract/fractions. Furthermore, the extract/fractions were analysed for the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities using different in vitro assays.

Results: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g. Likewise, UHPLC method also showed maximum number as well as amount of polyphenolic compounds in ethyl acetate fraction. It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays. In Ames assay, ethyl acetate fraction again showed maximum antimutagenic activity of 97.70 % against the 2-aminofluorene mutagen in TA100 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

Conclusion: Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen. The maximum bioactivities of the ethyl acetate fraction may be linked to the presence of high number of polyphenolic compounds as shown by spectrophotometric as well as UHPLC methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Extraction and fractionation sketch of M. exotica leaves
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Fig1: Extraction and fractionation sketch of M. exotica leaves

Mentions: In the present study, leaves of M. exotica were extracted with ethanol to obtain the mother ethanolic extract (89.718 g). The ethanolic extract (22 g) yielded 67.03, 18.10, 0.83, 3.62 and 6.59 % of fraction when fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous respectively as shown in Fig. 1 with maximum % yield of hexane fraction. The total phenolic content was found highest in ethyl acetate fraction i.e. 119.6 mg GAE/g and followed by n-butanol > chloroform > hexane > ethanol > aqueous fraction. Total phenolic content was determined by using the standard curve equation of y = 0.0005x + 0.0377, R2 = 0.99. Polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids have been labelled as “high level natural antioxidants” based upon their ability to scavenge free radicals and active oxygen species. Total flavonoid content was calculated from standard curve equation of y = 0.0006x + 0.0454 with R2 = 0.99. The highest flavonoid content of 323.5 mg RE/g was measured in chloroform fraction as compared to other extract/fractions. The total flavonoid content in other extract/fractions was found in the order of ethanol > hexane > ethyl acetate > n-butanol > aqueous fraction (Table 1).Fig. 1


Delineation of attenuation of oxidative stress and mutagenic stress by Murraya exotica L. leaves.

Kaur D, Kaur A, Arora S - Springerplus (2016)

Extraction and fractionation sketch of M. exotica leaves
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940350&req=5

Fig1: Extraction and fractionation sketch of M. exotica leaves
Mentions: In the present study, leaves of M. exotica were extracted with ethanol to obtain the mother ethanolic extract (89.718 g). The ethanolic extract (22 g) yielded 67.03, 18.10, 0.83, 3.62 and 6.59 % of fraction when fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous respectively as shown in Fig. 1 with maximum % yield of hexane fraction. The total phenolic content was found highest in ethyl acetate fraction i.e. 119.6 mg GAE/g and followed by n-butanol > chloroform > hexane > ethanol > aqueous fraction. Total phenolic content was determined by using the standard curve equation of y = 0.0005x + 0.0377, R2 = 0.99. Polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids have been labelled as “high level natural antioxidants” based upon their ability to scavenge free radicals and active oxygen species. Total flavonoid content was calculated from standard curve equation of y = 0.0006x + 0.0454 with R2 = 0.99. The highest flavonoid content of 323.5 mg RE/g was measured in chloroform fraction as compared to other extract/fractions. The total flavonoid content in other extract/fractions was found in the order of ethanol > hexane > ethyl acetate > n-butanol > aqueous fraction (Table 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g.It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays.Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Murraya exotica L., a member of family Rutaceae is rich in biologically active secondary metabolites and also known for its ethnobotanical importance. With this in mind, the plant was chosen and leaves were extracted sequentially to obtain ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. The extract/fractions were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content by spectrophotometric methods. The UHPLC technique was employed for profiling the different polyphenolic compounds present in the extract/fractions. Furthermore, the extract/fractions were analysed for the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities using different in vitro assays.

Results: It was observed that, among the different extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited maximum total phenolic content i.e. 119.6 mg of GAE/g whereas chloroform fraction showed maximum total flavonoid content i.e. 323.5 mg of RE/g. Likewise, UHPLC method also showed maximum number as well as amount of polyphenolic compounds in ethyl acetate fraction. It was further analyzed that the same fraction exhibited the maximum radical scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays. In Ames assay, ethyl acetate fraction again showed maximum antimutagenic activity of 97.70 % against the 2-aminofluorene mutagen in TA100 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

Conclusion: Overall, among all the extract/fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was observed to be highly effective in scavenging the free radical as well as reducing the mutagenic effect of the mutagen. The maximum bioactivities of the ethyl acetate fraction may be linked to the presence of high number of polyphenolic compounds as shown by spectrophotometric as well as UHPLC methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus