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Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

Li L, Gao Y - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features.The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value.And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 Sichuan China.

ABSTRACT
Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness.

No MeSH data available.


Statistical results for , the AZCR-OED of blended speech when the odd–even points are inverted
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Fig4: Statistical results for , the AZCR-OED of blended speech when the odd–even points are inverted

Mentions: Experiment 3: we made fifteen copies of the carrier speech group and then embedded secret speech into the carrier speech using the blending-based speech hiding algorithm with fifteen combinations of three hidden degree factors and five embedding rates. In the experiment, the hidden degree factors were 0.1, 0.01, and 0.005, and the embedding rates were 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 %, respectively. Thus, we obtained fifteen blended speech groups. We inverted the odd–even points of the speech in the blended speech groups and calculated the OED of each inverted blended speech signal and the corresponding average ZCR . Figure 4 shows the statistical results.Fig. 4


Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

Li L, Gao Y - Springerplus (2016)

Statistical results for , the AZCR-OED of blended speech when the odd–even points are inverted
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940342&req=5

Fig4: Statistical results for , the AZCR-OED of blended speech when the odd–even points are inverted
Mentions: Experiment 3: we made fifteen copies of the carrier speech group and then embedded secret speech into the carrier speech using the blending-based speech hiding algorithm with fifteen combinations of three hidden degree factors and five embedding rates. In the experiment, the hidden degree factors were 0.1, 0.01, and 0.005, and the embedding rates were 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 %, respectively. Thus, we obtained fifteen blended speech groups. We inverted the odd–even points of the speech in the blended speech groups and calculated the OED of each inverted blended speech signal and the corresponding average ZCR . Figure 4 shows the statistical results.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features.The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value.And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 Sichuan China.

ABSTRACT
Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness.

No MeSH data available.