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Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

Sandercock DA, Smith SH, Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA - J. Comp. Pathol. (2016)

Bottom Line: Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination.Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking.Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Veterinary Science Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: dale.sandercock@sruc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 4 weeks after docking. (A) Full re-epithelization of tail tip, mild epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis (note the island of cartilage in granulation tissue). HE. (B) Mature granulation tissue cap in the distal tip at the site of injury in the dermis. HE. (C) Widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis limited by a granulation tissue ‘cap’. HE. (D) Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation with newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (S100 expression). IHC.
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fig3: Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 4 weeks after docking. (A) Full re-epithelization of tail tip, mild epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis (note the island of cartilage in granulation tissue). HE. (B) Mature granulation tissue cap in the distal tip at the site of injury in the dermis. HE. (C) Widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis limited by a granulation tissue ‘cap’. HE. (D) Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation with newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (S100 expression). IHC.

Mentions: Tail tips were fully healed on gross examination in terms of epidermal integrity, as full re-epithelization was observed in all four tails (Fig. 3A). There was mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis evident in three of four tails. Mild intra-epidermal pustule formation was observed in one tail, but subcorneal pustules were not observed. In the dermis the formation of a prominent mature granulation tissue ‘cap’ was observed in the distal tip at the site of injury (Fig. 3B). This was characterized by extensive dermal fibroplasia and angiogenesis that extended to the transected coccygeal vertebra. Remnants of coccygeal cartilage were observed embedded in the granulation tissue of one tail (Fig. 3A). Mild dermal neutrophilic inflammation was evident in two of four tails, but no dermal oedema was present. Some coccygeal myofibre atrophy and regeneration were observed, but there were no signs of osteomyelitis or bone remodelling. S100 neurofilament immunolabelling highlighted widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis, although this was limited by the granulation tissue cap at this time point after docking injury (Fig. 3C). Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation was observed in two of four tails, characterized by newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (Fig. 3D).


Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

Sandercock DA, Smith SH, Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA - J. Comp. Pathol. (2016)

Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 4 weeks after docking. (A) Full re-epithelization of tail tip, mild epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis (note the island of cartilage in granulation tissue). HE. (B) Mature granulation tissue cap in the distal tip at the site of injury in the dermis. HE. (C) Widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis limited by a granulation tissue ‘cap’. HE. (D) Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation with newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (S100 expression). IHC.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940206&req=5

fig3: Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 4 weeks after docking. (A) Full re-epithelization of tail tip, mild epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis (note the island of cartilage in granulation tissue). HE. (B) Mature granulation tissue cap in the distal tip at the site of injury in the dermis. HE. (C) Widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis limited by a granulation tissue ‘cap’. HE. (D) Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation with newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (S100 expression). IHC.
Mentions: Tail tips were fully healed on gross examination in terms of epidermal integrity, as full re-epithelization was observed in all four tails (Fig. 3A). There was mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia, orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis evident in three of four tails. Mild intra-epidermal pustule formation was observed in one tail, but subcorneal pustules were not observed. In the dermis the formation of a prominent mature granulation tissue ‘cap’ was observed in the distal tip at the site of injury (Fig. 3B). This was characterized by extensive dermal fibroplasia and angiogenesis that extended to the transected coccygeal vertebra. Remnants of coccygeal cartilage were observed embedded in the granulation tissue of one tail (Fig. 3A). Mild dermal neutrophilic inflammation was evident in two of four tails, but no dermal oedema was present. Some coccygeal myofibre atrophy and regeneration were observed, but there were no signs of osteomyelitis or bone remodelling. S100 neurofilament immunolabelling highlighted widespread axonal proliferation and infiltration of the superficial dermis, although this was limited by the granulation tissue cap at this time point after docking injury (Fig. 3C). Neuromatous tissue/early neuroma formation was observed in two of four tails, characterized by newly formed axonal endings following a course of attempted re-innervation around the cut vertebral end, proximal to the granulation tissue (Fig. 3D).

Bottom Line: Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination.Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking.Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Veterinary Science Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: dale.sandercock@sruc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus