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Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

Sandercock DA, Smith SH, Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA - J. Comp. Pathol. (2016)

Bottom Line: Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination.Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking.Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Veterinary Science Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: dale.sandercock@sruc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 1 week after docking. (A) Cellular crust, epidermal hyperplasia and accentuation of rete pegs. HE. (B) Widespread granulation tissue, neutrophilic inflammation with some ulceration, abscess formation and oedema in the dermis. HE. (C). Myofibre atrophy and regeneration (*) in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae. HE. (D) De-novo axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (S100 expression). IHC.
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fig2: Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 1 week after docking. (A) Cellular crust, epidermal hyperplasia and accentuation of rete pegs. HE. (B) Widespread granulation tissue, neutrophilic inflammation with some ulceration, abscess formation and oedema in the dermis. HE. (C). Myofibre atrophy and regeneration (*) in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae. HE. (D) De-novo axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (S100 expression). IHC.

Mentions: Tail tips at the site of injury were fully covered with a surface crust (eschar) on gross examination. The surface crust, comprising of necrotic cell debris and serous fluid, was evident at the edge of the incision in all four tails examined by histology and many bacterial colonies were buried within it. In the epidermal layers, varying degrees of epidermal hyperplasia were observed in all tails, along with anastomosing rete pegs and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (Fig. 2A). Parakeratosis was noted in one tail and, in two of four tails, there were foci of epidermal erosion. In some tail sections, spongiosis, subcorneal and intra-epidermal pustules were observed, although the latter were rare. Full re-epithelialization had only occurred in one of the four tails. In the dermis there was widespread granulation tissue, areas of fibroplasia, and neutrophilic inflammation with abscess formation in one tail (Fig. 2B). The presence of mild dermal oedema was significantly greater (P <0.05) at this stage post docking. Sporadic angiogenesis unassociated with granulation tissue was also seen. The presence of mild to moderate myofibre atrophy and regeneration in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae was also observed at this stage post docking (Fig. 2C). There was evidence of mild bone remodelling in two of the four tails. Using the S100 neurofilament stain for the identification of peripheral nerves, there was no evidence of traumatic neuroma formation at this time point, although there was ‘de-novo’ axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (Fig. 2D).


Histopathological Characterization of Tail Injury and Traumatic Neuroma Development after Tail Docking in Piglets.

Sandercock DA, Smith SH, Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA - J. Comp. Pathol. (2016)

Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 1 week after docking. (A) Cellular crust, epidermal hyperplasia and accentuation of rete pegs. HE. (B) Widespread granulation tissue, neutrophilic inflammation with some ulceration, abscess formation and oedema in the dermis. HE. (C). Myofibre atrophy and regeneration (*) in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae. HE. (D) De-novo axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (S100 expression). IHC.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940206&req=5

fig2: Histopathological features in sections of pig tail stump 1 week after docking. (A) Cellular crust, epidermal hyperplasia and accentuation of rete pegs. HE. (B) Widespread granulation tissue, neutrophilic inflammation with some ulceration, abscess formation and oedema in the dermis. HE. (C). Myofibre atrophy and regeneration (*) in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae. HE. (D) De-novo axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (S100 expression). IHC.
Mentions: Tail tips at the site of injury were fully covered with a surface crust (eschar) on gross examination. The surface crust, comprising of necrotic cell debris and serous fluid, was evident at the edge of the incision in all four tails examined by histology and many bacterial colonies were buried within it. In the epidermal layers, varying degrees of epidermal hyperplasia were observed in all tails, along with anastomosing rete pegs and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (Fig. 2A). Parakeratosis was noted in one tail and, in two of four tails, there were foci of epidermal erosion. In some tail sections, spongiosis, subcorneal and intra-epidermal pustules were observed, although the latter were rare. Full re-epithelialization had only occurred in one of the four tails. In the dermis there was widespread granulation tissue, areas of fibroplasia, and neutrophilic inflammation with abscess formation in one tail (Fig. 2B). The presence of mild dermal oedema was significantly greater (P <0.05) at this stage post docking. Sporadic angiogenesis unassociated with granulation tissue was also seen. The presence of mild to moderate myofibre atrophy and regeneration in the deep skeletal muscle around the coccygeal vertebrae was also observed at this stage post docking (Fig. 2C). There was evidence of mild bone remodelling in two of the four tails. Using the S100 neurofilament stain for the identification of peripheral nerves, there was no evidence of traumatic neuroma formation at this time point, although there was ‘de-novo’ axonal growth extending to the superficial dermis and dermo-epidermal junction (Fig. 2D).

Bottom Line: Tissues were processed routinely for histopathological examination.Non-neural inflammatory and reparative epidermal and dermal changes associated with tissue thickening and healing were observed 1 to 4 months after docking.Mild neutrophilic inflammation was present in some cases, although this and other degenerative and non-neural reparative changes are not likely to have caused pain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal and Veterinary Science Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: dale.sandercock@sruc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus