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Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles.

Jonitz-Heincke A, Lochner K, Schulze C, Pohle D, Pustlauk W, Hansmann D, Bader R - Mol Med Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure.Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation.By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock 18057, Germany.

ABSTRACT
One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti‑6Al‑7Nb and Co‑28Cr‑6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP‑1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Release of VEGF by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n ≥3; macrophages, n=3). VEGF contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
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f8-mmr-14-02-1491: Release of VEGF by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n ≥3; macrophages, n=3). VEGF contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.

Mentions: Apart from its function in the developmental regulation of blood vessels, VEGF is also involved in the migration of monocytes and macrophages (4). In human osteoblasts, VEGF expression levels were mainly increased following exposure to lower particle concentration. However, the higher particle dose led to a downregulation of VEGF, with the exception of PMMA and Ti-6Al-7Nb. Significant differences between the protein levels induced by the two concentrations were only shown for Co-28Cr-6Mo, whereby the lower particle dose induced greater expression of VEGF protein [1.3-fold (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.8-fold (0.1 mg/ml), P=0.05] (Fig. 8A). In human macrophages, marked differences between the doses were observed for each particle, however, these were not identified to be statistically significant. Furthermore, compared with the unstimulated cells, VEGF release was more strongly induced following exposure to the lower particle concentration of the references ZrO2 (1.9-fold, P=0.037), cpTi (1.8-fold, P=0.037) and TiO2 (1.5-fold).


Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles.

Jonitz-Heincke A, Lochner K, Schulze C, Pohle D, Pustlauk W, Hansmann D, Bader R - Mol Med Rep (2016)

Release of VEGF by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n ≥3; macrophages, n=3). VEGF contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940096&req=5

f8-mmr-14-02-1491: Release of VEGF by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n ≥3; macrophages, n=3). VEGF contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
Mentions: Apart from its function in the developmental regulation of blood vessels, VEGF is also involved in the migration of monocytes and macrophages (4). In human osteoblasts, VEGF expression levels were mainly increased following exposure to lower particle concentration. However, the higher particle dose led to a downregulation of VEGF, with the exception of PMMA and Ti-6Al-7Nb. Significant differences between the protein levels induced by the two concentrations were only shown for Co-28Cr-6Mo, whereby the lower particle dose induced greater expression of VEGF protein [1.3-fold (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.8-fold (0.1 mg/ml), P=0.05] (Fig. 8A). In human macrophages, marked differences between the doses were observed for each particle, however, these were not identified to be statistically significant. Furthermore, compared with the unstimulated cells, VEGF release was more strongly induced following exposure to the lower particle concentration of the references ZrO2 (1.9-fold, P=0.037), cpTi (1.8-fold, P=0.037) and TiO2 (1.5-fold).

Bottom Line: These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure.Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation.By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock 18057, Germany.

ABSTRACT
One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti‑6Al‑7Nb and Co‑28Cr‑6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP‑1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus