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Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles.

Jonitz-Heincke A, Lochner K, Schulze C, Pohle D, Pustlauk W, Hansmann D, Bader R - Mol Med Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure.Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation.By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock 18057, Germany.

ABSTRACT
One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti‑6Al‑7Nb and Co‑28Cr‑6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP‑1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Release of MMP3 by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n=4; macrophages, n=3). MMP3 contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. Data are presented as box plots. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
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f2-mmr-14-02-1491: Release of MMP3 by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n=4; macrophages, n=3). MMP3 contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. Data are presented as box plots. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.

Mentions: Compared with unstimulated cells, MMP1 expression was significantly induced following exposure to a higher concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of the cpTi reference particles (osteoblasts: 1.2-fold increase, P=0.014; macrophages: 1.6-fold increase, P=0.005) and TiO2 (macrophages: 1.2-fold increase, P=0.005) as well as from hip stem-derived particles of Ti-6Al-7Nb (osteoblasts: 3.4-fold increase, P=0.014 macrophages: 1.9-fold increase, P= 0.005) in the two cell types. Furthermore, significant differences between particle concentrations were observed following exposure to particles from cpTi (P=0.021) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (P=0.021) in osteoblasts as well as for cpTi particles (P=0.028) in macrophages. By contrast, particles from Co-28Cr-6Mo stems as well as reference particles from PMMA and ZrO2 did not induce MMP1 expression in human osteoblasts and macrophages (Fig. 1). MMP3 protein was mostly downregulated in human osteoblasts following exposure to reference and hip stem-derived particles. Significant differences compared with unstimulated cells were shown for the lower particle concentration of cpTi (0.8-fold decrease, P=0.014), TiO2 (0.8-fold decrease, P=0.014), Ti-6Al-7Nb (0.7-fold decrease, P=0.014) and Co-28Cr-6Mo (0.5-fold decrease, P=0.014). Additionally, concentration-dependent differences were visible for ZrO2 [1.2-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.8-fold decrease (0.1 mg/ml), P= 0.043] and TiO2 [0.8-fold decrease (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.2-fold increase (0.1 mg/ml), P=0.043] particles (Fig. 2A). In human macrophages, particle exposure resulted in an increase in MMP3 protein (Fig. 2B); a greater higher particle concentration generally resulted in increased MMP3 levels, particularly with titanium-based particles [cpTi: 1.1-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml), 2-fold increase, P=0.005 (0.1 mg/ml); and TiO2: 1.6-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml), 1.9-fold increase (0.1 mg/ml); both P=0.005].


Contribution of human osteoblasts and macrophages to bone matrix degradation and proinflammatory cytokine release after exposure to abrasive endoprosthetic wear particles.

Jonitz-Heincke A, Lochner K, Schulze C, Pohle D, Pustlauk W, Hansmann D, Bader R - Mol Med Rep (2016)

Release of MMP3 by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n=4; macrophages, n=3). MMP3 contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. Data are presented as box plots. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940096&req=5

f2-mmr-14-02-1491: Release of MMP3 by human (A) osteoblasts and (B) macrophages. Cells were cultivated under standard culture conditions and later treated with the respective particles for 48 h. Subsequently, cell culture supernatants were collected and analyzed using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (osteoblasts, n=4; macrophages, n=3). MMP3 contents are displayed relative to the untreated control. Data are presented as box plots. *P≤0.05 and **P<0.01 vs. particle exposure. °P≤0.05 vs. 0.01 mg/ml (Mann-Whitney U test). MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate; ZrO2, zirconiumoxide; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
Mentions: Compared with unstimulated cells, MMP1 expression was significantly induced following exposure to a higher concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of the cpTi reference particles (osteoblasts: 1.2-fold increase, P=0.014; macrophages: 1.6-fold increase, P=0.005) and TiO2 (macrophages: 1.2-fold increase, P=0.005) as well as from hip stem-derived particles of Ti-6Al-7Nb (osteoblasts: 3.4-fold increase, P=0.014 macrophages: 1.9-fold increase, P= 0.005) in the two cell types. Furthermore, significant differences between particle concentrations were observed following exposure to particles from cpTi (P=0.021) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (P=0.021) in osteoblasts as well as for cpTi particles (P=0.028) in macrophages. By contrast, particles from Co-28Cr-6Mo stems as well as reference particles from PMMA and ZrO2 did not induce MMP1 expression in human osteoblasts and macrophages (Fig. 1). MMP3 protein was mostly downregulated in human osteoblasts following exposure to reference and hip stem-derived particles. Significant differences compared with unstimulated cells were shown for the lower particle concentration of cpTi (0.8-fold decrease, P=0.014), TiO2 (0.8-fold decrease, P=0.014), Ti-6Al-7Nb (0.7-fold decrease, P=0.014) and Co-28Cr-6Mo (0.5-fold decrease, P=0.014). Additionally, concentration-dependent differences were visible for ZrO2 [1.2-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.8-fold decrease (0.1 mg/ml), P= 0.043] and TiO2 [0.8-fold decrease (0.01 mg/ml) vs. 0.2-fold increase (0.1 mg/ml), P=0.043] particles (Fig. 2A). In human macrophages, particle exposure resulted in an increase in MMP3 protein (Fig. 2B); a greater higher particle concentration generally resulted in increased MMP3 levels, particularly with titanium-based particles [cpTi: 1.1-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml), 2-fold increase, P=0.005 (0.1 mg/ml); and TiO2: 1.6-fold increase (0.01 mg/ml), 1.9-fold increase (0.1 mg/ml); both P=0.005].

Bottom Line: These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure.Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation.By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock 18057, Germany.

ABSTRACT
One of the major reasons for failure after total joint arthroplasty is aseptic loosening of the implant. At articulating surfaces, defined as the interface between implant and surrounding bone cement, wear particles can be generated and released into the periprosthetic tissue, resulting in inflammation and osteolysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which osteoblasts and macrophages are responsible for the osteolytic and inflammatory reactions following contact with generated wear particles from Ti‑6Al‑7Nb and Co‑28Cr‑6Mo hip stems. To this end, human osteoblasts and THP‑1 monocytic cells were incubated with the experimentally generated wear particles as well as reference particles (0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml) for 48 h under standard culture conditions. To evaluate the impact of these particles on the two cell types, the release of different bone matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and relevant cytokines were determined by multiplex enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. Following incubation with wear particles, human osteoblasts showed a significant upregulation of MMP1 and MMP8, whereas macrophages reacted with enhanced MMP3, MMP8 and MMP10 production. Moreover, the synthesis of TIMPs 1 and 2 was inhibited. The osteoblasts and macrophages also responded with modified expression of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. These results demonstrate that the release of wear particles affects the release of proinflammatory cytokines and has a negative impact on bone matrix formation during the first 48 h of particle exposure. Human osteoblasts are directly involved in the proinflammatory cascade of bone matrix degradation. The simultaneous activation and recruitment of monocytes/macrophages boosted osteolytic processes in the periprosthetic tissue. By the downregulation of TIMP production and the concomitant upregulation of MMPs as a response to particle exposure, bone formation around implants may be suppressed, resulting in implant failure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus