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ATunable Scaffold of Microtubular Graphite for 3D Cell Growth

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aerographite(AG) is a novel carbon-based material that exists as a self-supportive3D network of interconnected hollow microtubules. It can be synthesizedin a variety of architectures tailored by the growth conditions. Thisflexibility in creating structures presents interesting bioengineeringpossibilities such as the generation of an artificial extracellularmatrix. Here we have explored the feasibility and potential of AGas a scaffold for 3D cell growth employing cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptidescoupled to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated phospholipids forsurface functionalization to promote specific adhesion of fibroblastcells. Successful growth and invasion of the bulk material was followedover a period of 4 days.

No MeSH data available.


(A) White ZnO templates with a volume of 0.085 cm3 (top) are converted into black AG (bottom) in a one stepCVD process. The ZnO is removed completely during formation of AGfilaments. Scale bar: 6 mm. (B) Scanning electron microscopy revealsthe hierarchical scaffold of interconnected hollow carbon microtubules.Scale bar: 50 μm. (C) AG is inherently super hydrophobic asdemonstrated by water forming a nearly perfect droplet on the surfaceof the black AG disk, which is fixed to a small Si-chip with double-sidedadhesive tape. (C) An aqueous solution of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 is a well-suited wetting agent and the Si-chip with the AG diskreadily submerges in the liquid.
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fig1: (A) White ZnO templates with a volume of 0.085 cm3 (top) are converted into black AG (bottom) in a one stepCVD process. The ZnO is removed completely during formation of AGfilaments. Scale bar: 6 mm. (B) Scanning electron microscopy revealsthe hierarchical scaffold of interconnected hollow carbon microtubules.Scale bar: 50 μm. (C) AG is inherently super hydrophobic asdemonstrated by water forming a nearly perfect droplet on the surfaceof the black AG disk, which is fixed to a small Si-chip with double-sidedadhesive tape. (C) An aqueous solution of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 is a well-suited wetting agent and the Si-chip with the AG diskreadily submerges in the liquid.

Mentions: Conventional methods to fabricate 3D fibrousmatrices include the decellularization of donor-derived matrices17 and electrospinning methods.18 AG synthesis,15 in contrast,is a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In brief, ZnOtemplates (Figure 1A, top panel) are produced from a loose powder of microsized ZnOtetra- and multipods that are compressed and heated for 3h at 1200°C.19 Under an argon and hydrogenatmosphere with toluene as a carbon source the templates are convertedinto AG at ∼760 °C. During deposition and formation oftubular graphitic carbon the underlying ZnO network is reduced toelemental Zn and removed entirely by the gas flow, resulting in ablack opaque material (Figure 1A, bottom panel). An injection rate of 6 mL/h per g(ZnO) yielded sample densitiesof 1.0–1.2 mg/cm3 and a Young’s modulus ofabout 1 kPa.


ATunable Scaffold of Microtubular Graphite for 3D Cell Growth
(A) White ZnO templates with a volume of 0.085 cm3 (top) are converted into black AG (bottom) in a one stepCVD process. The ZnO is removed completely during formation of AGfilaments. Scale bar: 6 mm. (B) Scanning electron microscopy revealsthe hierarchical scaffold of interconnected hollow carbon microtubules.Scale bar: 50 μm. (C) AG is inherently super hydrophobic asdemonstrated by water forming a nearly perfect droplet on the surfaceof the black AG disk, which is fixed to a small Si-chip with double-sidedadhesive tape. (C) An aqueous solution of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 is a well-suited wetting agent and the Si-chip with the AG diskreadily submerges in the liquid.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940076&req=5

fig1: (A) White ZnO templates with a volume of 0.085 cm3 (top) are converted into black AG (bottom) in a one stepCVD process. The ZnO is removed completely during formation of AGfilaments. Scale bar: 6 mm. (B) Scanning electron microscopy revealsthe hierarchical scaffold of interconnected hollow carbon microtubules.Scale bar: 50 μm. (C) AG is inherently super hydrophobic asdemonstrated by water forming a nearly perfect droplet on the surfaceof the black AG disk, which is fixed to a small Si-chip with double-sidedadhesive tape. (C) An aqueous solution of DSPE-PEG2000-NH2 is a well-suited wetting agent and the Si-chip with the AG diskreadily submerges in the liquid.
Mentions: Conventional methods to fabricate 3D fibrousmatrices include the decellularization of donor-derived matrices17 and electrospinning methods.18 AG synthesis,15 in contrast,is a one-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In brief, ZnOtemplates (Figure 1A, top panel) are produced from a loose powder of microsized ZnOtetra- and multipods that are compressed and heated for 3h at 1200°C.19 Under an argon and hydrogenatmosphere with toluene as a carbon source the templates are convertedinto AG at ∼760 °C. During deposition and formation oftubular graphitic carbon the underlying ZnO network is reduced toelemental Zn and removed entirely by the gas flow, resulting in ablack opaque material (Figure 1A, bottom panel). An injection rate of 6 mL/h per g(ZnO) yielded sample densitiesof 1.0–1.2 mg/cm3 and a Young’s modulus ofabout 1 kPa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aerographite(AG) is a novel carbon-based material that exists as a self-supportive3D network of interconnected hollow microtubules. It can be synthesizedin a variety of architectures tailored by the growth conditions. Thisflexibility in creating structures presents interesting bioengineeringpossibilities such as the generation of an artificial extracellularmatrix. Here we have explored the feasibility and potential of AGas a scaffold for 3D cell growth employing cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptidescoupled to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated phospholipids forsurface functionalization to promote specific adhesion of fibroblastcells. Successful growth and invasion of the bulk material was followedover a period of 4 days.

No MeSH data available.