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Endurance training: is it bad for you?

Morici G, Gruttad'Auria CI, Baiamonte P, Mazzuca E, Castrogiovanni A, Bonsignore MR - Breathe (Sheff) (2016)

Bottom Line: Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes.Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: BioNeC Dept, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology (IBIM), CNR, Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Educational aims: To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health.To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity.To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of "sports asthma" has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a) Bronchial epithelial cell counts in induced sputum significantly increased post-race. **: p<0.01. b) IL-8 concentration in sputum supernatants was positively correlated with bronchial epithelial cell absolute counts post-race. Oct, May and Nov refer to three different half-marathon races during which samples were collected. Reproduced from [15] with permission.
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Figure 1: a) Bronchial epithelial cell counts in induced sputum significantly increased post-race. **: p<0.01. b) IL-8 concentration in sputum supernatants was positively correlated with bronchial epithelial cell absolute counts post-race. Oct, May and Nov refer to three different half-marathon races during which samples were collected. Reproduced from [15] with permission.

Mentions: The main finding of our studies in marathon and half-marathon runners was that induced sputum showed increased neutrophil counts, especially in post-race samples, compared with induced sputum composition of healthy sedentary subjects. Interestingly, influx of inflammatory cells into the airways was not associated with any clear evidence of activation or respiratory symptoms [14]. Subsequent studies showed that bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were damaged after endurance exercise and released interleukin (IL)-8, a known chemoattractant of neutrophils (figure 1). However, this response appeared self-limiting, since a large proportion of BECs in the airways were shown to be apoptotic (figure 2) [15]. Other studies in young competitive rowers suggested that increased BEC counts were positively associ­ated with very high ventilation rates [16]. Environmental pollutants also appear to affect airway cell apoptosis, whereas exercise intensity seems the main factor in the pathogenesis of apoptosis of BECs [17].


Endurance training: is it bad for you?

Morici G, Gruttad'Auria CI, Baiamonte P, Mazzuca E, Castrogiovanni A, Bonsignore MR - Breathe (Sheff) (2016)

a) Bronchial epithelial cell counts in induced sputum significantly increased post-race. **: p<0.01. b) IL-8 concentration in sputum supernatants was positively correlated with bronchial epithelial cell absolute counts post-race. Oct, May and Nov refer to three different half-marathon races during which samples were collected. Reproduced from [15] with permission.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4933620&req=5

Figure 1: a) Bronchial epithelial cell counts in induced sputum significantly increased post-race. **: p<0.01. b) IL-8 concentration in sputum supernatants was positively correlated with bronchial epithelial cell absolute counts post-race. Oct, May and Nov refer to three different half-marathon races during which samples were collected. Reproduced from [15] with permission.
Mentions: The main finding of our studies in marathon and half-marathon runners was that induced sputum showed increased neutrophil counts, especially in post-race samples, compared with induced sputum composition of healthy sedentary subjects. Interestingly, influx of inflammatory cells into the airways was not associated with any clear evidence of activation or respiratory symptoms [14]. Subsequent studies showed that bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were damaged after endurance exercise and released interleukin (IL)-8, a known chemoattractant of neutrophils (figure 1). However, this response appeared self-limiting, since a large proportion of BECs in the airways were shown to be apoptotic (figure 2) [15]. Other studies in young competitive rowers suggested that increased BEC counts were positively associ­ated with very high ventilation rates [16]. Environmental pollutants also appear to affect airway cell apoptosis, whereas exercise intensity seems the main factor in the pathogenesis of apoptosis of BECs [17].

Bottom Line: Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes.Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: BioNeC Dept, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology (IBIM), CNR, Palermo, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Educational aims: To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health.To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity.To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of "sports asthma" has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus