Limits...
The utility of polarized heliospheric imaging for space weather monitoring.

DeForest CE, Howard TA, Webb DF, Davies JA - Space Weather (2016)

Bottom Line: Recent advances in heliospheric imaging have demonstrated that a polarized imager is feasible with current component technology.Developing this technology to a high technology readiness level is critical for space weather relevant imaging from either a near-Earth or deep-space mission.We consider deployment as an instrument on NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory follow-on near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, as a stand-alone constellation of smallsats in low Earth orbit, or as an instrument located at the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point.The critical first step is the demonstration of the technology, in either a science or prototype operational mission context.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Space Studies Southwest Research Institute Boulder Colorado USA.

ABSTRACT

A polarizing heliospheric imager is a critical next generation tool for space weather monitoring and prediction. Heliospheric imagers can track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they cross the solar system, using sunlight scattered by electrons in the CME. This tracking has been demonstrated to improve the forecasting of impact probability and arrival time for Earth-directed CMEs. Polarized imaging allows locating CMEs in three dimensions from a single vantage point. Recent advances in heliospheric imaging have demonstrated that a polarized imager is feasible with current component technology.Developing this technology to a high technology readiness level is critical for space weather relevant imaging from either a near-Earth or deep-space mission. In this primarily technical review, we developpreliminary hardware requirements for a space weather polarizing heliospheric imager system and outline possible ways to flight qualify and ultimately deploy the technology operationally on upcoming specific missions. We consider deployment as an instrument on NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory follow-on near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, as a stand-alone constellation of smallsats in low Earth orbit, or as an instrument located at the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point. The critical first step is the demonstration of the technology, in either a science or prototype operational mission context.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Recent improvements in the state of the art allow separation of a photometric signal from wide‐field heliospheric images. (left) Median‐filtered difference imaging was state of the art in 2010. (right) Processed image reveals shape and photometry in the same CME as at left.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4933095&req=5

swe20300-fig-0001: Recent improvements in the state of the art allow separation of a photometric signal from wide‐field heliospheric images. (left) Median‐filtered difference imaging was state of the art in 2010. (right) Processed image reveals shape and photometry in the same CME as at left.

Mentions: Prior to the release of processed photometric images, much progress was made using running difference imagery. Such works include Harrison et al. [2008], Davis et al. [2009], Wood and Howard [2009], Wood et al. [2011], Lugaz [2010], Möstl et al. [2010], Sheeley and Rouillard [2010], and Rouillard et al. [2011]. By around 2010, workers began searching for the means by which they could “drill” farther into the HI data sets, particularly for HI‐2, where measurements were mostly limited to geometric and kinematic analysis. Figure 1 demonstrates the relative improvement in feature‐excess photometry from prior pipelines for STEREO data. It marks a substantial leap from qualitative imaging, which reveals the location of the fronts of CMEs and other features, to quantitative imaging, which reveals location, photometric brightness, and details about the substructure of the feature of interest. This enables new types of analysis, including mass estimation and polarization analysis (see sections 3.2 and 3.4). The dominant remaining noise source after our postprocessing consists of background residuals due to as yet uncorrected nonlinear effects in the STEREO/HI detector calibration. The final noise level in each square degree is a few ×10−17B⊙, which is considerably larger than the photon noise alone [DeForest and Howard, 2015].


The utility of polarized heliospheric imaging for space weather monitoring.

DeForest CE, Howard TA, Webb DF, Davies JA - Space Weather (2016)

Recent improvements in the state of the art allow separation of a photometric signal from wide‐field heliospheric images. (left) Median‐filtered difference imaging was state of the art in 2010. (right) Processed image reveals shape and photometry in the same CME as at left.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4933095&req=5

swe20300-fig-0001: Recent improvements in the state of the art allow separation of a photometric signal from wide‐field heliospheric images. (left) Median‐filtered difference imaging was state of the art in 2010. (right) Processed image reveals shape and photometry in the same CME as at left.
Mentions: Prior to the release of processed photometric images, much progress was made using running difference imagery. Such works include Harrison et al. [2008], Davis et al. [2009], Wood and Howard [2009], Wood et al. [2011], Lugaz [2010], Möstl et al. [2010], Sheeley and Rouillard [2010], and Rouillard et al. [2011]. By around 2010, workers began searching for the means by which they could “drill” farther into the HI data sets, particularly for HI‐2, where measurements were mostly limited to geometric and kinematic analysis. Figure 1 demonstrates the relative improvement in feature‐excess photometry from prior pipelines for STEREO data. It marks a substantial leap from qualitative imaging, which reveals the location of the fronts of CMEs and other features, to quantitative imaging, which reveals location, photometric brightness, and details about the substructure of the feature of interest. This enables new types of analysis, including mass estimation and polarization analysis (see sections 3.2 and 3.4). The dominant remaining noise source after our postprocessing consists of background residuals due to as yet uncorrected nonlinear effects in the STEREO/HI detector calibration. The final noise level in each square degree is a few ×10−17B⊙, which is considerably larger than the photon noise alone [DeForest and Howard, 2015].

Bottom Line: Recent advances in heliospheric imaging have demonstrated that a polarized imager is feasible with current component technology.Developing this technology to a high technology readiness level is critical for space weather relevant imaging from either a near-Earth or deep-space mission.We consider deployment as an instrument on NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory follow-on near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, as a stand-alone constellation of smallsats in low Earth orbit, or as an instrument located at the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point.The critical first step is the demonstration of the technology, in either a science or prototype operational mission context.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Space Studies Southwest Research Institute Boulder Colorado USA.

ABSTRACT

A polarizing heliospheric imager is a critical next generation tool for space weather monitoring and prediction. Heliospheric imagers can track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they cross the solar system, using sunlight scattered by electrons in the CME. This tracking has been demonstrated to improve the forecasting of impact probability and arrival time for Earth-directed CMEs. Polarized imaging allows locating CMEs in three dimensions from a single vantage point. Recent advances in heliospheric imaging have demonstrated that a polarized imager is feasible with current component technology.Developing this technology to a high technology readiness level is critical for space weather relevant imaging from either a near-Earth or deep-space mission. In this primarily technical review, we developpreliminary hardware requirements for a space weather polarizing heliospheric imager system and outline possible ways to flight qualify and ultimately deploy the technology operationally on upcoming specific missions. We consider deployment as an instrument on NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory follow-on near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, as a stand-alone constellation of smallsats in low Earth orbit, or as an instrument located at the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrange point. The critical first step is the demonstration of the technology, in either a science or prototype operational mission context.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus