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Comparative genomics reveals multiple pathways to mutualism for tick-borne pathogens.

Lockwood S, Brayton KA, Broschat SL - BMC Genomics (2016)

Bottom Line: The final set of 102 genomes used in the study encoded a total of 120,046 protein sequences.Our analysis suggests that the ability of pathogens to be transmitted by ticks arose multiple times over the course of evolution.To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of tick transmissibility to date.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, P.O. Box 642752, Pullman, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple important human and livestock pathogens employ ticks as their primary host vectors. It is not currently known whether this means of infecting a host arose once or many times during evolution.

Results: In order to address this question, we conducted a comparative genomics analysis on a set of bacterial pathogens from seven genera - Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, Coxiella, and Bartonella, including species from three different host vectors - ticks, lice, and fleas. The final set of 102 genomes used in the study encoded a total of 120,046 protein sequences. We found that no genes or metabolic pathways were present in all tick-borne bacteria. However, we found some genes and pathways were present in subsets of tick-transmitted organisms while absent from bacteria transmitted by lice or fleas.

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that the ability of pathogens to be transmitted by ticks arose multiple times over the course of evolution. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of tick transmissibility to date.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three-dimensional depiction of gene cluster representation according to vector species. Every ball represents a gene cluster, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively
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Fig2: Three-dimensional depiction of gene cluster representation according to vector species. Every ball represents a gene cluster, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively

Mentions: If a set of genes common to all tick-borne bacteria exists, then it implies there is a bio-molecular, tick-associated mechanism shared among all of them. Note that while we refer to homologous gene (HG) clusters, we actually clustered deduced amino acid sequences, or proteins; we use the terms synonymously. We examined the microbial genomes for homologous gene presence using 3D visualization (Fig. 2, Additional file 3: Figure S1). In Fig. 2, every ball represents a cluster of homologous genes, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively. For example, if a certain cluster is located at coordinates (0.4,0.3,0.7), it means that the cluster appears in 40 % of tick-borne organisms, 30 % of louse-borne organisms, and 70 % of flea-borne organisms in our set. Such a mapping allows quick identification of vector-specific clusters. For example, all homologous gene clusters unique only to tick-borne organisms would have coordinates (x,0,0), or, in other words, would lie on the tick-axis. Similarly, homologous gene clusters present exclusively in louse- or flea-borne organisms would lie on the louse-axis and flea-axis, respectively. Homologous genes present in all organisms are located at (1,1,1).Fig. 2


Comparative genomics reveals multiple pathways to mutualism for tick-borne pathogens.

Lockwood S, Brayton KA, Broschat SL - BMC Genomics (2016)

Three-dimensional depiction of gene cluster representation according to vector species. Every ball represents a gene cluster, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4930560&req=5

Fig2: Three-dimensional depiction of gene cluster representation according to vector species. Every ball represents a gene cluster, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively
Mentions: If a set of genes common to all tick-borne bacteria exists, then it implies there is a bio-molecular, tick-associated mechanism shared among all of them. Note that while we refer to homologous gene (HG) clusters, we actually clustered deduced amino acid sequences, or proteins; we use the terms synonymously. We examined the microbial genomes for homologous gene presence using 3D visualization (Fig. 2, Additional file 3: Figure S1). In Fig. 2, every ball represents a cluster of homologous genes, and its location in (x, y, z) coordinates gives the fraction or percentage proportional to its appearance in the genome of an organism that is transmitted by one of the three vector types – ticks, lice, and fleas, respectively. For example, if a certain cluster is located at coordinates (0.4,0.3,0.7), it means that the cluster appears in 40 % of tick-borne organisms, 30 % of louse-borne organisms, and 70 % of flea-borne organisms in our set. Such a mapping allows quick identification of vector-specific clusters. For example, all homologous gene clusters unique only to tick-borne organisms would have coordinates (x,0,0), or, in other words, would lie on the tick-axis. Similarly, homologous gene clusters present exclusively in louse- or flea-borne organisms would lie on the louse-axis and flea-axis, respectively. Homologous genes present in all organisms are located at (1,1,1).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The final set of 102 genomes used in the study encoded a total of 120,046 protein sequences.Our analysis suggests that the ability of pathogens to be transmitted by ticks arose multiple times over the course of evolution.To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of tick transmissibility to date.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, P.O. Box 642752, Pullman, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple important human and livestock pathogens employ ticks as their primary host vectors. It is not currently known whether this means of infecting a host arose once or many times during evolution.

Results: In order to address this question, we conducted a comparative genomics analysis on a set of bacterial pathogens from seven genera - Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, Coxiella, and Bartonella, including species from three different host vectors - ticks, lice, and fleas. The final set of 102 genomes used in the study encoded a total of 120,046 protein sequences. We found that no genes or metabolic pathways were present in all tick-borne bacteria. However, we found some genes and pathways were present in subsets of tick-transmitted organisms while absent from bacteria transmitted by lice or fleas.

Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that the ability of pathogens to be transmitted by ticks arose multiple times over the course of evolution. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of tick transmissibility to date.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus