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Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

Heshe GG, Haki GD, Woldegiorgis AZ, Gemede HF - Food Sci Nutr (2015)

Bottom Line: Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling.Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread.The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Science and Nutrition College of Natural Sciences Addis Ababa University P.O. BOX 1176 Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling. The TPC (total phenolic content) of the white wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P < 0.005) lower than those of the whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of wheat extracts and standard (Values are average of triplicate measurements [mean ± SEM]).
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fsn3315-fig-0002: DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of wheat extracts and standard (Values are average of triplicate measurements [mean ± SEM]).

Mentions: The DPPH radical scavenging effects of wheat methanol extracts was shown in Figure 2. As the concentration of sample increased, the percent inhibition of DPPH radical also increased (Haung et al. 2005). At the concentration of 50 mg/mL, the scavenging effect of ascorbic acid, and wheat extracts, on the DPPH radical scavenging decreased in the order of L‐ ascorbic acid > soft whole > hard whole > soft white > hard white wheat flour, which were 92.53, 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, 57.57%, respectively. Therefore, the percentage of DPPH radical scavenging capacity of soft whole and hard whole wheat extracts are comparable with commercial antioxidants, L‐ ascorbic acid at concentration of 50 mg/mL. This suggested that whole wheat contain compounds that can donate electron/hydrogen easily and stabilizes free radicals.


Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

Heshe GG, Haki GD, Woldegiorgis AZ, Gemede HF - Food Sci Nutr (2015)

DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of wheat extracts and standard (Values are average of triplicate measurements [mean ± SEM]).
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4930497&req=5

fsn3315-fig-0002: DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of wheat extracts and standard (Values are average of triplicate measurements [mean ± SEM]).
Mentions: The DPPH radical scavenging effects of wheat methanol extracts was shown in Figure 2. As the concentration of sample increased, the percent inhibition of DPPH radical also increased (Haung et al. 2005). At the concentration of 50 mg/mL, the scavenging effect of ascorbic acid, and wheat extracts, on the DPPH radical scavenging decreased in the order of L‐ ascorbic acid > soft whole > hard whole > soft white > hard white wheat flour, which were 92.53, 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, 57.57%, respectively. Therefore, the percentage of DPPH radical scavenging capacity of soft whole and hard whole wheat extracts are comparable with commercial antioxidants, L‐ ascorbic acid at concentration of 50 mg/mL. This suggested that whole wheat contain compounds that can donate electron/hydrogen easily and stabilizes free radicals.

Bottom Line: Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling.Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread.The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Science and Nutrition College of Natural Sciences Addis Ababa University P.O. BOX 1176 Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by milling. The TPC (total phenolic content) of the white wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P < 0.005) lower than those of the whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the bran level of the bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus