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Mass Balance Assessment for Six Neonicotinoid Insecticides During Conventional Wastewater and Wetland Treatment: Nationwide Reconnaissance in United States Wastewater.

Sadaria AM, Supowit SD, Halden RU - Environ. Sci. Technol. (2016)

Bottom Line: Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected.Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000-3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide.This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biodesign Center for Environmental Security, The Biodesign Institute, Global Security Initiative, and School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University , Tempe, Arizona 85287-5904, United States.

ABSTRACT
Occurrence and removal of six high-production high-volume neonicotinoids was investigated in 13 conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one engineered wetland. Flow-weighted daily composites were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing the occurrence of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin at ng/L concentrations in WWTP influent (60.5 ± 40.0; 2.9 ± 1.9; 149.7 ± 289.5, respectively) and effluent (58.5 ± 29.1; 2.3 ± 1.4; 70.2 ± 121.8, respectively). A mass balance showed insignificant removal of imidacloprid (p = 0.09, CI = 95%) and limited removal of the sum of acetamiprid and its degradate, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl (18 ± 4%, p = 0.01, CI = 95%). Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected. In the wetland, no removal of imidacloprid or acetamiprid was observed. Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000-3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide. This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Imidacloprid concentrations detected in 12 United Stateswastewatertreatment plants (a); for WWTPs 7–10 (∗), only effluentwas analyzed. Also shown is a comparison of published ecological toxicitybenchmark values for chronic and acute exposure (red dotted lines)with discharged effluent concentration of imidacloprid at differenttimes of year (b). Appropriate in-stream dilution factors for receivingsurface water bodies need to be considered for risk assessment andmay be as small as unity in effluent-dominated streams.
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fig2: Imidacloprid concentrations detected in 12 United Stateswastewatertreatment plants (a); for WWTPs 7–10 (∗), only effluentwas analyzed. Also shown is a comparison of published ecological toxicitybenchmark values for chronic and acute exposure (red dotted lines)with discharged effluent concentration of imidacloprid at differenttimes of year (b). Appropriate in-stream dilution factors for receivingsurface water bodies need to be considered for risk assessment andmay be as small as unity in effluent-dominated streams.

Mentions: Considering the high toxicity of neonicotinoidsto aquatic communities at low concentrations, it is necessary to considerWWTP effluent as a source of pesticides to the environment. Therefore,to better define the discharge of neonicotinoids into United Statessurface waters nationwide and to confirm that the observed behavioris not plant specific, composite wastewater samples were collectedfrom 12 United States WWTPs between January and December 2015 andanalyzed. The WWTPs analyzed were located in the western (n = 4), southern (n = 6), and midwestern(n = 2) regions of the United States, featuring diversemicrobial communities, suspended solids, sludge age, and hydraulicretention time. Influent and effluent concentrations (Figure 2a) of neonicotinoids coincidedwith the conducted mass balance. Facilities 2, 5, and 12 performedtertiary treatment by filtration, and facilities 2, 6, and 12 performedUV disinfection instead of chlorination. All other facilities performedconventional treatment, i.e., secondary treatment followed by chlorinedisinfection. Regardless of treatment strategy investigated, neonicotinoidspersisted in each case without notable differences. The average concentrationsdischarged (including information on minimum, maximum, and medianvalues in ng/L as well as detection frequency) were 62.6 ng/L (18.5,146.4, 52.7, 100%) for imidacloprid, 1.9 ng/L (0.6, 5.7, 1.3, 67%)for acetamiprid, and 12.1 ng/L (9.9, 13.4, 12.5, 33%) for clothianidin.Thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were not detected in anyof the samples examined, with MDLs of 0.3, 0.1, and 32.6 ng/L, respectively.On the basis of the detected concentration of neonicotinoids in influentand the population served by the studied treatment facilities, thetotal neonicotinoid annual loading in sewage is estimated to rangefrom 3.1 to 10.7 mg/person/y, a value reflecting both known domesticand unknown agricultural insecticide uses in the respective sewersheds.Accordingly, the mass of neonicotinoids discharged into United Statessurface waters nationwide is estimated to be on the order of approximately1.0–3.4 t of imidacloprid [United States population is considered318.9 million (2014) (Source: United States Census Bureau)]. No estimatesare provided for acetamiprid and clothianidin here because of lowconcentrations (<10 ng/L) and relatively low detection frequencies.The nationwide estimate provided here could be improved upon by futurestudies featuring a larger number of seasonal samples taken at a greaternumber of plants.


Mass Balance Assessment for Six Neonicotinoid Insecticides During Conventional Wastewater and Wetland Treatment: Nationwide Reconnaissance in United States Wastewater.

Sadaria AM, Supowit SD, Halden RU - Environ. Sci. Technol. (2016)

Imidacloprid concentrations detected in 12 United Stateswastewatertreatment plants (a); for WWTPs 7–10 (∗), only effluentwas analyzed. Also shown is a comparison of published ecological toxicitybenchmark values for chronic and acute exposure (red dotted lines)with discharged effluent concentration of imidacloprid at differenttimes of year (b). Appropriate in-stream dilution factors for receivingsurface water bodies need to be considered for risk assessment andmay be as small as unity in effluent-dominated streams.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4930273&req=5

fig2: Imidacloprid concentrations detected in 12 United Stateswastewatertreatment plants (a); for WWTPs 7–10 (∗), only effluentwas analyzed. Also shown is a comparison of published ecological toxicitybenchmark values for chronic and acute exposure (red dotted lines)with discharged effluent concentration of imidacloprid at differenttimes of year (b). Appropriate in-stream dilution factors for receivingsurface water bodies need to be considered for risk assessment andmay be as small as unity in effluent-dominated streams.
Mentions: Considering the high toxicity of neonicotinoidsto aquatic communities at low concentrations, it is necessary to considerWWTP effluent as a source of pesticides to the environment. Therefore,to better define the discharge of neonicotinoids into United Statessurface waters nationwide and to confirm that the observed behavioris not plant specific, composite wastewater samples were collectedfrom 12 United States WWTPs between January and December 2015 andanalyzed. The WWTPs analyzed were located in the western (n = 4), southern (n = 6), and midwestern(n = 2) regions of the United States, featuring diversemicrobial communities, suspended solids, sludge age, and hydraulicretention time. Influent and effluent concentrations (Figure 2a) of neonicotinoids coincidedwith the conducted mass balance. Facilities 2, 5, and 12 performedtertiary treatment by filtration, and facilities 2, 6, and 12 performedUV disinfection instead of chlorination. All other facilities performedconventional treatment, i.e., secondary treatment followed by chlorinedisinfection. Regardless of treatment strategy investigated, neonicotinoidspersisted in each case without notable differences. The average concentrationsdischarged (including information on minimum, maximum, and medianvalues in ng/L as well as detection frequency) were 62.6 ng/L (18.5,146.4, 52.7, 100%) for imidacloprid, 1.9 ng/L (0.6, 5.7, 1.3, 67%)for acetamiprid, and 12.1 ng/L (9.9, 13.4, 12.5, 33%) for clothianidin.Thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were not detected in anyof the samples examined, with MDLs of 0.3, 0.1, and 32.6 ng/L, respectively.On the basis of the detected concentration of neonicotinoids in influentand the population served by the studied treatment facilities, thetotal neonicotinoid annual loading in sewage is estimated to rangefrom 3.1 to 10.7 mg/person/y, a value reflecting both known domesticand unknown agricultural insecticide uses in the respective sewersheds.Accordingly, the mass of neonicotinoids discharged into United Statessurface waters nationwide is estimated to be on the order of approximately1.0–3.4 t of imidacloprid [United States population is considered318.9 million (2014) (Source: United States Census Bureau)]. No estimatesare provided for acetamiprid and clothianidin here because of lowconcentrations (<10 ng/L) and relatively low detection frequencies.The nationwide estimate provided here could be improved upon by futurestudies featuring a larger number of seasonal samples taken at a greaternumber of plants.

Bottom Line: Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected.Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000-3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide.This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biodesign Center for Environmental Security, The Biodesign Institute, Global Security Initiative, and School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University , Tempe, Arizona 85287-5904, United States.

ABSTRACT
Occurrence and removal of six high-production high-volume neonicotinoids was investigated in 13 conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one engineered wetland. Flow-weighted daily composites were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing the occurrence of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin at ng/L concentrations in WWTP influent (60.5 ± 40.0; 2.9 ± 1.9; 149.7 ± 289.5, respectively) and effluent (58.5 ± 29.1; 2.3 ± 1.4; 70.2 ± 121.8, respectively). A mass balance showed insignificant removal of imidacloprid (p = 0.09, CI = 95%) and limited removal of the sum of acetamiprid and its degradate, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl (18 ± 4%, p = 0.01, CI = 95%). Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected. In the wetland, no removal of imidacloprid or acetamiprid was observed. Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000-3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide. This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus