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The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women.

Aghajafari F, Field CJ, Kaplan BJ, Rabi DM, Maggiore JA, O'Beirne M, Hanley DA, Eliasziw M, Dewey D, Weinberg A, Ross SJ, APrON Study Te - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D.The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L.We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations.

Methods: Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day's diet.

Results: Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatter plot of plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pregnant women during second trimester of pregnancy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada (n = 537).Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (r = 0.69, P<0.001).
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pone.0157262.g001: Scatter plot of plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pregnant women during second trimester of pregnancy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada (n = 537).Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (r = 0.69, P<0.001).

Mentions: Maternal 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3and 3-epi-25(OH)D3concentrations. All samples were found to have detectable concentrations of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Median (25th-75th) maternal plasma concentration for 25(OH)D2 was 2.9 (1.7–4.4) nmol/L. Vitamin D supplements in Canada are almost all vitamin D3; however, vitamin D2 is still available by prescription and may be obtained from some food sources. Median (25th-75th) maternal plasma 25(OH)D3 was 89.2 (74.4–106) nmol/L, and for plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was 5.2 (4.1–6.7) nmol/L (Table 2). No participant had 25(OH)D (excluding 3-epi-25(OH)D3) plasma concentrations <25 nmol/L, 12 (2%, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) women had plasma concentrations <50 nmol/L, and 100 (19%, 95% CI: 15.3–22.2) women had concentrations in the <75 nmol/L range. The relationship between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 is shown in Fig 1.


The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women.

Aghajafari F, Field CJ, Kaplan BJ, Rabi DM, Maggiore JA, O'Beirne M, Hanley DA, Eliasziw M, Dewey D, Weinberg A, Ross SJ, APrON Study Te - PLoS ONE (2016)

Scatter plot of plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pregnant women during second trimester of pregnancy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada (n = 537).Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (r = 0.69, P<0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4930210&req=5

pone.0157262.g001: Scatter plot of plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pregnant women during second trimester of pregnancy in a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women and their infants in Alberta, Canada (n = 537).Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (r = 0.69, P<0.001).
Mentions: Maternal 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3and 3-epi-25(OH)D3concentrations. All samples were found to have detectable concentrations of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Median (25th-75th) maternal plasma concentration for 25(OH)D2 was 2.9 (1.7–4.4) nmol/L. Vitamin D supplements in Canada are almost all vitamin D3; however, vitamin D2 is still available by prescription and may be obtained from some food sources. Median (25th-75th) maternal plasma 25(OH)D3 was 89.2 (74.4–106) nmol/L, and for plasma 3-epi-25(OH)D3 was 5.2 (4.1–6.7) nmol/L (Table 2). No participant had 25(OH)D (excluding 3-epi-25(OH)D3) plasma concentrations <25 nmol/L, 12 (2%, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) women had plasma concentrations <50 nmol/L, and 100 (19%, 95% CI: 15.3–22.2) women had concentrations in the <75 nmol/L range. The relationship between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 is shown in Fig 1.

Bottom Line: Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D.The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L.We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations.

Methods: Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day's diet.

Results: Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus