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Homoeologs: What Are They and How Do We Infer Them?

Glover NM, Redestig H, Dessimoz C - Trends Plant Sci. (2016)

Bottom Line: Homologous genes resulting from allopolyploidy are commonly referred to as 'homoeologs', although this term has not always been used precisely or consistently in the literature.Here we review the definition of homoeology in historical and modern contexts and propose a precise and testable definition highlighting the connection between homoeologs and orthologs.Establishing a precise and evolutionarily meaningful definition of homoeology is essential for understanding the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bayer CropScience NV, Technologiepark 38, 9052 Gent, Belgium; University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Subtypes of Homologous Genes (Genes of Common Ancestry). As the table shows, the definition of ‘homoeologs’ we recommend – genes that originated by speciation and that were subsequently brought back in a single genome through allopolyploidization – complements well other homology subtypes commonly used in evolutionary biology. In particular, the table highlights the parallels between homoeologs and orthologs and between homoeologs and ohnologs.
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fig0005: Subtypes of Homologous Genes (Genes of Common Ancestry). As the table shows, the definition of ‘homoeologs’ we recommend – genes that originated by speciation and that were subsequently brought back in a single genome through allopolyploidization – complements well other homology subtypes commonly used in evolutionary biology. In particular, the table highlights the parallels between homoeologs and orthologs and between homoeologs and ohnologs.

Mentions: Consequently, there is a need for a unifying, evolutionarily precise definition of homoeology, formulated in terms of the key events that gave rise to the genes in question. The ideal definition should be as consistent as possible with the widespread usage of the term and should complement the other ‘-log’ terms, which have served the community well. We define homoeologs as pairs of genes or chromosomes in the same species that originated by speciation and were brought back together in the same genome by allopolyploidization. Figure 1 depicts how this definition complements the other ‘log’ terms. In particular, the analogy between homoeologs and orthologs implies that homoeologs can be thought of as orthologs between subgenomes of an allopolyploid [35].


Homoeologs: What Are They and How Do We Infer Them?

Glover NM, Redestig H, Dessimoz C - Trends Plant Sci. (2016)

Subtypes of Homologous Genes (Genes of Common Ancestry). As the table shows, the definition of ‘homoeologs’ we recommend – genes that originated by speciation and that were subsequently brought back in a single genome through allopolyploidization – complements well other homology subtypes commonly used in evolutionary biology. In particular, the table highlights the parallels between homoeologs and orthologs and between homoeologs and ohnologs.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920642&req=5

fig0005: Subtypes of Homologous Genes (Genes of Common Ancestry). As the table shows, the definition of ‘homoeologs’ we recommend – genes that originated by speciation and that were subsequently brought back in a single genome through allopolyploidization – complements well other homology subtypes commonly used in evolutionary biology. In particular, the table highlights the parallels between homoeologs and orthologs and between homoeologs and ohnologs.
Mentions: Consequently, there is a need for a unifying, evolutionarily precise definition of homoeology, formulated in terms of the key events that gave rise to the genes in question. The ideal definition should be as consistent as possible with the widespread usage of the term and should complement the other ‘-log’ terms, which have served the community well. We define homoeologs as pairs of genes or chromosomes in the same species that originated by speciation and were brought back together in the same genome by allopolyploidization. Figure 1 depicts how this definition complements the other ‘log’ terms. In particular, the analogy between homoeologs and orthologs implies that homoeologs can be thought of as orthologs between subgenomes of an allopolyploid [35].

Bottom Line: Homologous genes resulting from allopolyploidy are commonly referred to as 'homoeologs', although this term has not always been used precisely or consistently in the literature.Here we review the definition of homoeology in historical and modern contexts and propose a precise and testable definition highlighting the connection between homoeologs and orthologs.Establishing a precise and evolutionarily meaningful definition of homoeology is essential for understanding the evolutionary consequences of polyploidization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bayer CropScience NV, Technologiepark 38, 9052 Gent, Belgium; University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

No MeSH data available.