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No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

Lippelt DP, van der Kint S, van Herk K, Naber M - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks.The hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics.We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, Leiden, 2333AK, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

No MeSH data available.


Procedure and stimuli of verbal working memory task of experiment 3.A total of 24 verbal animal species (a) were read out in 2 second intervals (b). Next, the participant had to recall and type in all the names they remembered. Unrecalled words (misses) were read out again until the participant was able to recall all words or until they had gone through 4 trial iterations.
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pone.0157714.g005: Procedure and stimuli of verbal working memory task of experiment 3.A total of 24 verbal animal species (a) were read out in 2 second intervals (b). Next, the participant had to recall and type in all the names they remembered. Unrecalled words (misses) were read out again until the participant was able to recall all words or until they had gone through 4 trial iterations.

Mentions: The visuospatial working memory and declarative memory picture task were identical to the tasks used in experiment 1 and 2, except for the doubled amount of pictures. The verbal working memory task was a variant of the Buschke-task [65]. In the original Buschke task, the researcher reads out 24 names of animal species which are then to be recalled by the participant. Next, the researcher reads out those names that the participant was unable to recall and the participant is again asked to recall all of the 24 species names. This process is reiterated until the entire list of names is recalled correctly or until a fixed number of trial iterations has been performed. In the current version of the Buschke-task, the animal species names were read out by a female voice with a 2 second interval in which each auditory stimulus lasted approximately 1 second (Fig 5). Participants recalled the words by typing in their responses on the computer one-by-one. The maximum number of trial iterations was set to 5 (including the first trial). Because spelling could potentially pose a problem for some participants, alternatives such as “Cheeta” instead of “Cheetah” were also counted as correct recalls. Spelling errors were gathered during several pilot sessions.


No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

Lippelt DP, van der Kint S, van Herk K, Naber M - PLoS ONE (2016)

Procedure and stimuli of verbal working memory task of experiment 3.A total of 24 verbal animal species (a) were read out in 2 second intervals (b). Next, the participant had to recall and type in all the names they remembered. Unrecalled words (misses) were read out again until the participant was able to recall all words or until they had gone through 4 trial iterations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920398&req=5

pone.0157714.g005: Procedure and stimuli of verbal working memory task of experiment 3.A total of 24 verbal animal species (a) were read out in 2 second intervals (b). Next, the participant had to recall and type in all the names they remembered. Unrecalled words (misses) were read out again until the participant was able to recall all words or until they had gone through 4 trial iterations.
Mentions: The visuospatial working memory and declarative memory picture task were identical to the tasks used in experiment 1 and 2, except for the doubled amount of pictures. The verbal working memory task was a variant of the Buschke-task [65]. In the original Buschke task, the researcher reads out 24 names of animal species which are then to be recalled by the participant. Next, the researcher reads out those names that the participant was unable to recall and the participant is again asked to recall all of the 24 species names. This process is reiterated until the entire list of names is recalled correctly or until a fixed number of trial iterations has been performed. In the current version of the Buschke-task, the animal species names were read out by a female voice with a 2 second interval in which each auditory stimulus lasted approximately 1 second (Fig 5). Participants recalled the words by typing in their responses on the computer one-by-one. The maximum number of trial iterations was set to 5 (including the first trial). Because spelling could potentially pose a problem for some participants, alternatives such as “Cheeta” instead of “Cheetah” were also counted as correct recalls. Spelling errors were gathered during several pilot sessions.

Bottom Line: We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks.The hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics.We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, Leiden, 2333AK, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

No MeSH data available.