Limits...
Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging - A Simulation Study.

Maksuti E, Westerhof N, Westerhof BE, Broomé M, Stergiopulos N - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study.Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging.The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Aortic pressure and flow profiles.The curves were computed at 20 (bold), 40, 60 and 80 (dashed) years of ages, when considering both the contribution of the arterial and cardiac changes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920393&req=5

pone.0157493.g003: Aortic pressure and flow profiles.The curves were computed at 20 (bold), 40, 60 and 80 (dashed) years of ages, when considering both the contribution of the arterial and cardiac changes.

Mentions: Fig 3 shows simulated pressure and flow wave shapes at 20, 40, 60 and 80 years of age. Aortic pressures rises more steeply at older ages due to higher arterial stiffness and higher characteristic impedance. The systolic pressure is reached later in the ejection phase when age increases. Simulated flow profiles are similar for all ages, with a slight decrease in peak flow and a 12% increase in ejection time between 20 and 80 years. A 5% age-dependent increase in left ventricular ejection time was reported in elderly subjects, as compared with young individuals [24].


Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging - A Simulation Study.

Maksuti E, Westerhof N, Westerhof BE, Broomé M, Stergiopulos N - PLoS ONE (2016)

Aortic pressure and flow profiles.The curves were computed at 20 (bold), 40, 60 and 80 (dashed) years of ages, when considering both the contribution of the arterial and cardiac changes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920393&req=5

pone.0157493.g003: Aortic pressure and flow profiles.The curves were computed at 20 (bold), 40, 60 and 80 (dashed) years of ages, when considering both the contribution of the arterial and cardiac changes.
Mentions: Fig 3 shows simulated pressure and flow wave shapes at 20, 40, 60 and 80 years of age. Aortic pressures rises more steeply at older ages due to higher arterial stiffness and higher characteristic impedance. The systolic pressure is reached later in the ejection phase when age increases. Simulated flow profiles are similar for all ages, with a slight decrease in peak flow and a 12% increase in ejection time between 20 and 80 years. A 5% age-dependent increase in left ventricular ejection time was reported in elderly subjects, as compared with young individuals [24].

Bottom Line: In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study.Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging.The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus