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The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets.

Clayton BA, Middleton D, Arkinstall R, Frazer L, Wang LF, Marsh GA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2016)

Bottom Line: In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY.In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain.These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission study–cohabitation plus direct transfer of secretions: Serology.Sera were tested for anti-NiV IgM (A) and IgG (B) binding antibodies on a Luminex platform. The cut-off for a positive result, represented on each of the graphs as a dashed line, was calculated for each analyte based on binding antibody results from pre-challenge serum samples collected from 17 animals in the study, which were run on the same plate with target samples to generate base-line parameters upon which cutoffs were determined. These were defined as the mean median fluorescence intensity for the 17 pre-challenge samples + 3 standard deviations of the mean. Ig, immunoglobulin.
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pntd.0004775.g008: Transmission study–cohabitation plus direct transfer of secretions: Serology.Sera were tested for anti-NiV IgM (A) and IgG (B) binding antibodies on a Luminex platform. The cut-off for a positive result, represented on each of the graphs as a dashed line, was calculated for each analyte based on binding antibody results from pre-challenge serum samples collected from 17 animals in the study, which were run on the same plate with target samples to generate base-line parameters upon which cutoffs were determined. These were defined as the mean median fluorescence intensity for the 17 pre-challenge samples + 3 standard deviations of the mean. Ig, immunoglobulin.

Mentions: At ferret euthanasia, all donor and recipient serum samples were negative for neutralizing antibody by SNT. Sera from NiV-BD in-contact ferrets were also analyzed by Luminex using biotinylated IgG and IgM anti-ferret antibodies (Fig 8). Three of the four animals had developed an anti-NiV IgM response between day 4 and day 8 after the first exposure to donor inoculum, accompanied by a less marked rise in IgG.


The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets.

Clayton BA, Middleton D, Arkinstall R, Frazer L, Wang LF, Marsh GA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2016)

Transmission study–cohabitation plus direct transfer of secretions: Serology.Sera were tested for anti-NiV IgM (A) and IgG (B) binding antibodies on a Luminex platform. The cut-off for a positive result, represented on each of the graphs as a dashed line, was calculated for each analyte based on binding antibody results from pre-challenge serum samples collected from 17 animals in the study, which were run on the same plate with target samples to generate base-line parameters upon which cutoffs were determined. These were defined as the mean median fluorescence intensity for the 17 pre-challenge samples + 3 standard deviations of the mean. Ig, immunoglobulin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920392&req=5

pntd.0004775.g008: Transmission study–cohabitation plus direct transfer of secretions: Serology.Sera were tested for anti-NiV IgM (A) and IgG (B) binding antibodies on a Luminex platform. The cut-off for a positive result, represented on each of the graphs as a dashed line, was calculated for each analyte based on binding antibody results from pre-challenge serum samples collected from 17 animals in the study, which were run on the same plate with target samples to generate base-line parameters upon which cutoffs were determined. These were defined as the mean median fluorescence intensity for the 17 pre-challenge samples + 3 standard deviations of the mean. Ig, immunoglobulin.
Mentions: At ferret euthanasia, all donor and recipient serum samples were negative for neutralizing antibody by SNT. Sera from NiV-BD in-contact ferrets were also analyzed by Luminex using biotinylated IgG and IgM anti-ferret antibodies (Fig 8). Three of the four animals had developed an anti-NiV IgM response between day 4 and day 8 after the first exposure to donor inoculum, accompanied by a less marked rise in IgG.

Bottom Line: In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY.In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain.These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus