Limits...
The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets.

Clayton BA, Middleton D, Arkinstall R, Frazer L, Wang LF, Marsh GA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2016)

Bottom Line: In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY.In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain.These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pulmonary lesions after exposure to NiV-BD or NiV-MY.Acute bronchiolitis with epithelial syncytia and viral antigen within cells and luminal debris in a ferret exposed to NiV-MY, d3pi (A, B) and a ferret exposed to NiV-BD, d4pi (C, D). An enlarged image of the epithelial syncytium marked with a black arrow-head in panel B is also shown (inset). Once developed, features of lung pathology were comparable between the virus strains. Images (A) and (C) are IHC stained using polyclonal anti- NiV N protein; (B) and (D) are respective serial sections stained by H&E. All images 20 x original objective; scale bars for images (C) and (D), 100 um.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920392&req=5

pntd.0004775.g001: Pulmonary lesions after exposure to NiV-BD or NiV-MY.Acute bronchiolitis with epithelial syncytia and viral antigen within cells and luminal debris in a ferret exposed to NiV-MY, d3pi (A, B) and a ferret exposed to NiV-BD, d4pi (C, D). An enlarged image of the epithelial syncytium marked with a black arrow-head in panel B is also shown (inset). Once developed, features of lung pathology were comparable between the virus strains. Images (A) and (C) are IHC stained using polyclonal anti- NiV N protein; (B) and (D) are respective serial sections stained by H&E. All images 20 x original objective; scale bars for images (C) and (D), 100 um.

Mentions: Once developed, the features of LRT pathology were comparable between NiV-BD and NiV-MY. Early changes were confined to accumulation of viral antigen in alveolar walls and vascular endothelium without other lesions, progressing to focal or multifocal bronchoalveolitis (Fig 1) followed by necrosis and vasculitis. Viral antigen was detected in bronchoalveolar and glandular epithelium and luminal airway debris, as well as within alveolar walls, endothelial cells, and epithelial and endothelial syncytia.


The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets.

Clayton BA, Middleton D, Arkinstall R, Frazer L, Wang LF, Marsh GA - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2016)

Pulmonary lesions after exposure to NiV-BD or NiV-MY.Acute bronchiolitis with epithelial syncytia and viral antigen within cells and luminal debris in a ferret exposed to NiV-MY, d3pi (A, B) and a ferret exposed to NiV-BD, d4pi (C, D). An enlarged image of the epithelial syncytium marked with a black arrow-head in panel B is also shown (inset). Once developed, features of lung pathology were comparable between the virus strains. Images (A) and (C) are IHC stained using polyclonal anti- NiV N protein; (B) and (D) are respective serial sections stained by H&E. All images 20 x original objective; scale bars for images (C) and (D), 100 um.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920392&req=5

pntd.0004775.g001: Pulmonary lesions after exposure to NiV-BD or NiV-MY.Acute bronchiolitis with epithelial syncytia and viral antigen within cells and luminal debris in a ferret exposed to NiV-MY, d3pi (A, B) and a ferret exposed to NiV-BD, d4pi (C, D). An enlarged image of the epithelial syncytium marked with a black arrow-head in panel B is also shown (inset). Once developed, features of lung pathology were comparable between the virus strains. Images (A) and (C) are IHC stained using polyclonal anti- NiV N protein; (B) and (D) are respective serial sections stained by H&E. All images 20 x original objective; scale bars for images (C) and (D), 100 um.
Mentions: Once developed, the features of LRT pathology were comparable between NiV-BD and NiV-MY. Early changes were confined to accumulation of viral antigen in alveolar walls and vascular endothelium without other lesions, progressing to focal or multifocal bronchoalveolitis (Fig 1) followed by necrosis and vasculitis. Viral antigen was detected in bronchoalveolar and glandular epithelium and luminal airway debris, as well as within alveolar walls, endothelial cells, and epithelial and endothelial syncytia.

Bottom Line: In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY.In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain.These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus