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Bone structure and function in male C57BL/6 mice: Effects of a high-fat Western-style diet with or without trace minerals

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Osteoporosis occurs in both women and men, but most of what we know about the condition comes from studies in females. The present study examined bone structure and function over an 18-month period in male C57BL/6 mice maintained on either a rodent chow diet (AIN76A) or a high-fat, Western-style diet (HFWD). Effects of mineral supplementation were assessed in both diets.

Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone structure in femora and vertebrae were assessed by micro-CT analysis. Following this, bone stiffness and strength measurements were made. Finally, bone levels of several cationic trace elements were quantified, and serum biomarkers of bone metabolism evaluated.

Results: Bone loss occurred over time in both diets but was more rapid and extensive in mice on the HFWD. Dietary mineral supplementation reduced bone loss in both diets and increased bone stiffness in the femora and bone stiffness and strength in the vertebrae. Bone content of strontium was increased in response to mineral supplementation in both diets.

Conclusions: Bone loss was more severe in mice on the HFWD and mineral supplementation mitigated the effects of the HFWD. In comparison to previous findings with female C57BL/6 mice, the present studies indicate that males are more sensitive to diet and benefited from a healthy diet (AIN76A), while females lost as much bone on the healthy diet as on the HFWD. Male mice benefited from mineral supplementation, just as females did in the previous study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).
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f0020: Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).

Mentions: Although the present study was conducted, primarily, with femoral bone, we also carried out a series of experiments with the C8 vertebrae from mice on the HFWD at the 18-month time-point. Micro-CT data are shown in Fig. 4A and 4B. In the trabecular ROI, BMD, BV/TV and trabecular thickness were all increased significantly at the 18-month time-point relative to what was seen at 3 weeks of age. In the cortical ROI, we observed significant increases in BMD, cortical area and total area at the 18-month time-point relative to what was seen at 3 weeks of age. Mineral supplementation with AQ improved bone structural features detected by micro-CT in both trabecular and cortical ROI relative to what was observed in the absence of supplementation (Fig. 4A and 4B). Trabecular BMD was increased by 8% and cortical BMD was increased by 18% in mice on the mineral-supplemented diet as compared to the unsupplemented HFWD (p < 0.05 for both). Cortical area was increased by almost 37% in the mineral-supplemented HFWD relative to the HFWD alone (p < 0.05).


Bone structure and function in male C57BL/6 mice: Effects of a high-fat Western-style diet with or without trace minerals
Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).
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f0020: Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).Vertebral bone structure and function. A: Structural features of trabecular bone. B: Structural features of cortical bone. C: Biomechanical properties. Data are based on 10 mice at the 18-month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed using the Student t-test. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar, which indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The right lower panel (scatter plot) shows the positive correlation between stiffness and strength in individual mice. All of the C8 vertebral micro-CT trabecular/cortical bone parameters and biomechanical properties measured at the 18 month time-point are presented in Supplement Tables 6 and 7. Insert: A representative 3D micro-CT image of trabecular (surface) and cortical (diaphysis) region from the C8 caudal vertebrae of a mouse in each diet group at zero time and 18 month (magnification bar = 1 mm).
Mentions: Although the present study was conducted, primarily, with femoral bone, we also carried out a series of experiments with the C8 vertebrae from mice on the HFWD at the 18-month time-point. Micro-CT data are shown in Fig. 4A and 4B. In the trabecular ROI, BMD, BV/TV and trabecular thickness were all increased significantly at the 18-month time-point relative to what was seen at 3 weeks of age. In the cortical ROI, we observed significant increases in BMD, cortical area and total area at the 18-month time-point relative to what was seen at 3 weeks of age. Mineral supplementation with AQ improved bone structural features detected by micro-CT in both trabecular and cortical ROI relative to what was observed in the absence of supplementation (Fig. 4A and 4B). Trabecular BMD was increased by 8% and cortical BMD was increased by 18% in mice on the mineral-supplemented diet as compared to the unsupplemented HFWD (p < 0.05 for both). Cortical area was increased by almost 37% in the mineral-supplemented HFWD relative to the HFWD alone (p < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Osteoporosis occurs in both women and men, but most of what we know about the condition comes from studies in females. The present study examined bone structure and function over an 18-month period in male C57BL/6 mice maintained on either a rodent chow diet (AIN76A) or a high-fat, Western-style diet (HFWD). Effects of mineral supplementation were assessed in both diets.

Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone structure in femora and vertebrae were assessed by micro-CT analysis. Following this, bone stiffness and strength measurements were made. Finally, bone levels of several cationic trace elements were quantified, and serum biomarkers of bone metabolism evaluated.

Results: Bone loss occurred over time in both diets but was more rapid and extensive in mice on the HFWD. Dietary mineral supplementation reduced bone loss in both diets and increased bone stiffness in the femora and bone stiffness and strength in the vertebrae. Bone content of strontium was increased in response to mineral supplementation in both diets.

Conclusions: Bone loss was more severe in mice on the HFWD and mineral supplementation mitigated the effects of the HFWD. In comparison to previous findings with female C57BL/6 mice, the present studies indicate that males are more sensitive to diet and benefited from a healthy diet (AIN76A), while females lost as much bone on the healthy diet as on the HFWD. Male mice benefited from mineral supplementation, just as females did in the previous study.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus