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Bone structure and function in male C57BL/6 mice: Effects of a high-fat Western-style diet with or without trace minerals

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Osteoporosis occurs in both women and men, but most of what we know about the condition comes from studies in females. The present study examined bone structure and function over an 18-month period in male C57BL/6 mice maintained on either a rodent chow diet (AIN76A) or a high-fat, Western-style diet (HFWD). Effects of mineral supplementation were assessed in both diets.

Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone structure in femora and vertebrae were assessed by micro-CT analysis. Following this, bone stiffness and strength measurements were made. Finally, bone levels of several cationic trace elements were quantified, and serum biomarkers of bone metabolism evaluated.

Results: Bone loss occurred over time in both diets but was more rapid and extensive in mice on the HFWD. Dietary mineral supplementation reduced bone loss in both diets and increased bone stiffness in the femora and bone stiffness and strength in the vertebrae. Bone content of strontium was increased in response to mineral supplementation in both diets.

Conclusions: Bone loss was more severe in mice on the HFWD and mineral supplementation mitigated the effects of the HFWD. In comparison to previous findings with female C57BL/6 mice, the present studies indicate that males are more sensitive to diet and benefited from a healthy diet (AIN76A), while females lost as much bone on the healthy diet as on the HFWD. Male mice benefited from mineral supplementation, just as females did in the previous study.

No MeSH data available.


Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.
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f0005: Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.

Mentions: Micro-CT data from the trabecular ROI at 5, 12 and 18-month time-points are shown in Fig. 1. It can be seen from the figure that BMD remained almost constant over the 18-month maintenance period in mice on the rodent chow diet but declined by approximately 40% in mice fed the HFWD as compared to mice fed HFWD plus AQ. BV/TV and trabecular number declined in mice on either diet, but the decline was more severe in mice on the HFWD (BV/TV: 79% reduction in HFWD versus 48% in AIN76A; trabecular number: 77% decline versus 49% in the two diets, respectively). Trabecular thickness remained constant over the 18-month time period on either diet.


Bone structure and function in male C57BL/6 mice: Effects of a high-fat Western-style diet with or without trace minerals
Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.
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f0005: Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.Femoral bone: Structural features of trabecular bone. Structural features were assessed in the trabecular ROI by micro-CT as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are based on 5 mice at baseline (4 weeks of age), 10 mice at the 5 and 12 month time-points and 15 mice at the 18 month time-point in each group. Values are means and standard deviations. Statistical significance of each parameter was assessed by ANOVA followed by paired group comparisons. Statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level is indicated by the letters “a”, “b”, and “c”. The letter “a” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to HFWD alone. The letter “b” above the HFWD + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A group. The letter “c” above the AIN76A + AQ bar indicates statistically significant improvement relative to AIN76A alone. All of the trabecular micro-CT parameters measured at the three time points are presented in Supplement Table 3. Insert: Representative 3D micro-CT images of the trabecular ROI from the femora of mice in each diet group, at each time-point.
Mentions: Micro-CT data from the trabecular ROI at 5, 12 and 18-month time-points are shown in Fig. 1. It can be seen from the figure that BMD remained almost constant over the 18-month maintenance period in mice on the rodent chow diet but declined by approximately 40% in mice fed the HFWD as compared to mice fed HFWD plus AQ. BV/TV and trabecular number declined in mice on either diet, but the decline was more severe in mice on the HFWD (BV/TV: 79% reduction in HFWD versus 48% in AIN76A; trabecular number: 77% decline versus 49% in the two diets, respectively). Trabecular thickness remained constant over the 18-month time period on either diet.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Osteoporosis occurs in both women and men, but most of what we know about the condition comes from studies in females. The present study examined bone structure and function over an 18-month period in male C57BL/6 mice maintained on either a rodent chow diet (AIN76A) or a high-fat, Western-style diet (HFWD). Effects of mineral supplementation were assessed in both diets.

Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone structure in femora and vertebrae were assessed by micro-CT analysis. Following this, bone stiffness and strength measurements were made. Finally, bone levels of several cationic trace elements were quantified, and serum biomarkers of bone metabolism evaluated.

Results: Bone loss occurred over time in both diets but was more rapid and extensive in mice on the HFWD. Dietary mineral supplementation reduced bone loss in both diets and increased bone stiffness in the femora and bone stiffness and strength in the vertebrae. Bone content of strontium was increased in response to mineral supplementation in both diets.

Conclusions: Bone loss was more severe in mice on the HFWD and mineral supplementation mitigated the effects of the HFWD. In comparison to previous findings with female C57BL/6 mice, the present studies indicate that males are more sensitive to diet and benefited from a healthy diet (AIN76A), while females lost as much bone on the healthy diet as on the HFWD. Male mice benefited from mineral supplementation, just as females did in the previous study.

No MeSH data available.