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Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha.

Zhang X, Kang Z, Mao M, Li X, Cameron SL, Jong Hd, Wang M, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees.Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera.Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
A traditionally controversial taxon, the Tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other Nematocera. The interpretation of internal relationships within the Tipuloidea, which include the Tipulidae sensu stricto, Cylindrotomidae, Pediciidae and Limoniidae, is also problematic. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Symplecta hybrida (Meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily Chioneinae of family Limoniidae, and another five nearly complete mt genomes from the Tipuloidea. We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees. Trees inferred by Bayesian methods strongly support a sister-group relationship between Trichoceridae and Tipuloidea. Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic tree of Nematocera based on mt genome data 5PCG12RNA.Cladogram of relationships resulting from BI with Bittacus pilicornis, Boreus elegans and Jellisonia amadoi as outgroups. Numbers above the branches are posterior probabilities.
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pone.0158167.g007: Phylogenetic tree of Nematocera based on mt genome data 5PCG12RNA.Cladogram of relationships resulting from BI with Bittacus pilicornis, Boreus elegans and Jellisonia amadoi as outgroups. Numbers above the branches are posterior probabilities.

Mentions: The phylogenetic trees based on BI analyses of two datasets are given in Figs 6 and 7. The tree based on dataset PCG12RNA is disordered in four main branches (Fig 6), especially in the infraorder Culicomorpha, which was a well-supported monophyletic clade in previous studies [26, 29, 30, 41, 63, 64]. Then, we construct another tree based on dataset 5PCG12RNA, which are excluded eight difficult aligned genes (Fig 7). The monophyly of infraorder Culicomorpha is well supported, as well as the Tipulomorpha and the Bibionomorpha. The BI tree of 5PCG12RNA supports the Ptychopteromorpha is the earliest branch within the Diptera, and Psychodidae+Tanyderidae is the sister group to the Brachycera. However, two phylogenetic trees have very similar topologies for the branch Tipulomorpha. The monophyly of Tipulomorpha (Trichoceridae + Tipuloidea) is consistently supported, as is the monophyly of Tipuloidea (Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae sensu stricto). The monophyly of the family Limoniidae is not supported, with one or more of the three limoniid species grouping sister to the clade Cylindrotomidae + Tipulidae in each analyses. All analyses support the Tipulomorpha as having an intermediate phylogenetic position within the lower Diptera, never sister to the remaining flies or to the derived Brachycera.


Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha.

Zhang X, Kang Z, Mao M, Li X, Cameron SL, Jong Hd, Wang M, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2016)

Phylogenetic tree of Nematocera based on mt genome data 5PCG12RNA.Cladogram of relationships resulting from BI with Bittacus pilicornis, Boreus elegans and Jellisonia amadoi as outgroups. Numbers above the branches are posterior probabilities.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920351&req=5

pone.0158167.g007: Phylogenetic tree of Nematocera based on mt genome data 5PCG12RNA.Cladogram of relationships resulting from BI with Bittacus pilicornis, Boreus elegans and Jellisonia amadoi as outgroups. Numbers above the branches are posterior probabilities.
Mentions: The phylogenetic trees based on BI analyses of two datasets are given in Figs 6 and 7. The tree based on dataset PCG12RNA is disordered in four main branches (Fig 6), especially in the infraorder Culicomorpha, which was a well-supported monophyletic clade in previous studies [26, 29, 30, 41, 63, 64]. Then, we construct another tree based on dataset 5PCG12RNA, which are excluded eight difficult aligned genes (Fig 7). The monophyly of infraorder Culicomorpha is well supported, as well as the Tipulomorpha and the Bibionomorpha. The BI tree of 5PCG12RNA supports the Ptychopteromorpha is the earliest branch within the Diptera, and Psychodidae+Tanyderidae is the sister group to the Brachycera. However, two phylogenetic trees have very similar topologies for the branch Tipulomorpha. The monophyly of Tipulomorpha (Trichoceridae + Tipuloidea) is consistently supported, as is the monophyly of Tipuloidea (Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae sensu stricto). The monophyly of the family Limoniidae is not supported, with one or more of the three limoniid species grouping sister to the clade Cylindrotomidae + Tipulidae in each analyses. All analyses support the Tipulomorpha as having an intermediate phylogenetic position within the lower Diptera, never sister to the remaining flies or to the derived Brachycera.

Bottom Line: We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees.Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera.Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
A traditionally controversial taxon, the Tipulomorpha has been frequently discussed with respect to both its familial composition and relationships with other Nematocera. The interpretation of internal relationships within the Tipuloidea, which include the Tipulidae sensu stricto, Cylindrotomidae, Pediciidae and Limoniidae, is also problematic. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Symplecta hybrida (Meigen, 1804), which belongs to the subfamily Chioneinae of family Limoniidae, and another five nearly complete mt genomes from the Tipuloidea. We did a comparative analysis of these mt genomics and used them, along with some other representatives of the Nematocera to construct phylogenetic trees. Trees inferred by Bayesian methods strongly support a sister-group relationship between Trichoceridae and Tipuloidea. Tipulomorpha are not supported as the earliest branch of the Diptera. Furthermore, phylogenetic trees indicate that the family Limoniidae is a paraphyletic group.

No MeSH data available.