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Desiccation tolerance in Anopheles coluzzii: the effects of spiracle size and cuticular hydrocarbons.

Arcaz AC, Huestis DL, Dao A, Yaro AS, Diallo M, Andersen J, Blomquist GJ, Lehmann T - J. Exp. Biol. (2016)

Bottom Line: A smaller spiracle size appeared to increase A. coluzzii's desiccation tolerance, but was not statistically significant.Seasonal changes in CHC composition were detected in Sahelian A. coluzzii Stepwise regression models suggested the effect of particular CHCs on desiccation tolerance.In conclusion, the combination of particular CHCs along with the total amount of CHCs is a primary mechanism conferring desiccation tolerance in A. coluzzii, while variation in spiracle size might be a secondary mechanism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variation in CHC composition of G3 mosquitoes between treatments. (A) The proportion of mosquitoes exhibiting each CHC as a measure of abundance. (B) The relative quantity of each CHC using log contrast-transformed values. Lines represent 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean (single test level). Significant differences in frequency between treatments are indicated by asterisks below bars. Black and red asterisks indicate significance at the individual and multi-test level, respectively (‡P<0.1, *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001).
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JEB135665F6: Variation in CHC composition of G3 mosquitoes between treatments. (A) The proportion of mosquitoes exhibiting each CHC as a measure of abundance. (B) The relative quantity of each CHC using log contrast-transformed values. Lines represent 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean (single test level). Significant differences in frequency between treatments are indicated by asterisks below bars. Black and red asterisks indicate significance at the individual and multi-test level, respectively (‡P<0.1, *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001).

Mentions: Considerable variation was observed among individual females. Although a high proportion of mosquitoes exhibited n-C29, methyl-branched C33 (MebrC33) and MebrC25 (91%, 88% and 86%; Fig. 6), no CHC was detected in all of the G3 mosquitoes and only 13 of 30 CHCs were detected in 50% or higher proportion. The methyl-alkane 2MebrC27 was detected in 5 of 26 mosquitoes subjected to the dry treatment but in 0 of 38 from the humid treatment (P<0.008, Fisher exact test; P>0.05 at the multi-test level; Fig. 6). The alkanes n-C21, n-C23 and n-C25 were found in a higher proportion of the mosquitoes subjected to the dry treatment (P<0.01, Fisher exact test; Fig. 6), whereas C27:1 exhibited the reverse trend. The relative quantity of the CHCs, expressed as the log contrast-transformed values of CHCs (Fig. 6), showed differences between treatments in nine of 25 CHCs (overall P<0.0001, binomial test). Three (MebrC35, 3MebrC29 and n-C23) of the nine CHCs were significant in the multi-test level (Fig. 6).Fig. 6.


Desiccation tolerance in Anopheles coluzzii: the effects of spiracle size and cuticular hydrocarbons.

Arcaz AC, Huestis DL, Dao A, Yaro AS, Diallo M, Andersen J, Blomquist GJ, Lehmann T - J. Exp. Biol. (2016)

Variation in CHC composition of G3 mosquitoes between treatments. (A) The proportion of mosquitoes exhibiting each CHC as a measure of abundance. (B) The relative quantity of each CHC using log contrast-transformed values. Lines represent 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean (single test level). Significant differences in frequency between treatments are indicated by asterisks below bars. Black and red asterisks indicate significance at the individual and multi-test level, respectively (‡P<0.1, *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920233&req=5

JEB135665F6: Variation in CHC composition of G3 mosquitoes between treatments. (A) The proportion of mosquitoes exhibiting each CHC as a measure of abundance. (B) The relative quantity of each CHC using log contrast-transformed values. Lines represent 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean (single test level). Significant differences in frequency between treatments are indicated by asterisks below bars. Black and red asterisks indicate significance at the individual and multi-test level, respectively (‡P<0.1, *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001).
Mentions: Considerable variation was observed among individual females. Although a high proportion of mosquitoes exhibited n-C29, methyl-branched C33 (MebrC33) and MebrC25 (91%, 88% and 86%; Fig. 6), no CHC was detected in all of the G3 mosquitoes and only 13 of 30 CHCs were detected in 50% or higher proportion. The methyl-alkane 2MebrC27 was detected in 5 of 26 mosquitoes subjected to the dry treatment but in 0 of 38 from the humid treatment (P<0.008, Fisher exact test; P>0.05 at the multi-test level; Fig. 6). The alkanes n-C21, n-C23 and n-C25 were found in a higher proportion of the mosquitoes subjected to the dry treatment (P<0.01, Fisher exact test; Fig. 6), whereas C27:1 exhibited the reverse trend. The relative quantity of the CHCs, expressed as the log contrast-transformed values of CHCs (Fig. 6), showed differences between treatments in nine of 25 CHCs (overall P<0.0001, binomial test). Three (MebrC35, 3MebrC29 and n-C23) of the nine CHCs were significant in the multi-test level (Fig. 6).Fig. 6.

Bottom Line: A smaller spiracle size appeared to increase A. coluzzii's desiccation tolerance, but was not statistically significant.Seasonal changes in CHC composition were detected in Sahelian A. coluzzii Stepwise regression models suggested the effect of particular CHCs on desiccation tolerance.In conclusion, the combination of particular CHCs along with the total amount of CHCs is a primary mechanism conferring desiccation tolerance in A. coluzzii, while variation in spiracle size might be a secondary mechanism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus