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Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement.

Howard IS, Franklin DW - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning.A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements.Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of experimental generalization functions for adaptive and contextual movements across the visual and passive lead-in conditions.(a) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the visual condition expressed as a percentage of perfect force compensation (mean ± SE across participants). (b) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the visual condition. (c) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the passive condition determined from our previous study28. (d) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the passive condition.
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f6: Comparison of experimental generalization functions for adaptive and contextual movements across the visual and passive lead-in conditions.(a) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the visual condition expressed as a percentage of perfect force compensation (mean ± SE across participants). (b) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the visual condition. (c) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the passive condition determined from our previous study28. (d) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the passive condition.

Mentions: Our experimental design was similar to that of our previous study28 which examined passive contextual movements in order to facilitate comparisons across the results. Here we can directly compare the generalization data from the visual contextual movement condition (Fig. 6a,b) with those of the passive contextual movement condition (Fig. 6c,d) re-plotted from our previous results28. It can be seen that both the visual and passive generalization in the adaptive movements exhibit strong similarities (Fig. 6a,c). Both have a peak around 0°, fall towards zero compensation at around ±90°, have similar widths and exhibit an almost 100% modulation depth. In contrast, the visual and passive contextual tuning responses exhibit much shallower tuning curves, with modulation depths of only around 20% for the visual (Fig. 6b) and 30% for passive (Fig. 6d) conditions. One interesting feature to note is that the apparent width of generalization for the visual contextual movement (Fig. 6b) is much larger than that of the passive contextual movement (Fig. 6d). Instead the latter appears to be similar to that of the visual and passive probe tuning responses (Fig. 6a,c).


Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement.

Howard IS, Franklin DW - Sci Rep (2016)

Comparison of experimental generalization functions for adaptive and contextual movements across the visual and passive lead-in conditions.(a) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the visual condition expressed as a percentage of perfect force compensation (mean ± SE across participants). (b) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the visual condition. (c) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the passive condition determined from our previous study28. (d) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the passive condition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4920033&req=5

f6: Comparison of experimental generalization functions for adaptive and contextual movements across the visual and passive lead-in conditions.(a) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the visual condition expressed as a percentage of perfect force compensation (mean ± SE across participants). (b) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the visual condition. (c) Tuning curve for the adaptation movement in the passive condition determined from our previous study28. (d) Corresponding tuning curve for the contextual movement in the passive condition.
Mentions: Our experimental design was similar to that of our previous study28 which examined passive contextual movements in order to facilitate comparisons across the results. Here we can directly compare the generalization data from the visual contextual movement condition (Fig. 6a,b) with those of the passive contextual movement condition (Fig. 6c,d) re-plotted from our previous results28. It can be seen that both the visual and passive generalization in the adaptive movements exhibit strong similarities (Fig. 6a,c). Both have a peak around 0°, fall towards zero compensation at around ±90°, have similar widths and exhibit an almost 100% modulation depth. In contrast, the visual and passive contextual tuning responses exhibit much shallower tuning curves, with modulation depths of only around 20% for the visual (Fig. 6b) and 30% for passive (Fig. 6d) conditions. One interesting feature to note is that the apparent width of generalization for the visual contextual movement (Fig. 6b) is much larger than that of the passive contextual movement (Fig. 6d). Instead the latter appears to be similar to that of the visual and passive probe tuning responses (Fig. 6a,c).

Bottom Line: Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning.A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements.Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus