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Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy.

Khaqan A, Bilal M, Ilyas M, Ijaz B, Ali Riaz R - Comput Math Methods Med (2016)

Bottom Line: In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery.The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery.The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shahzad, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH) during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI) systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Integrated PKPD model.
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fig2: Integrated PKPD model.

Mentions: The clinical behavior of the hypnotic drug (Propofol) is categorized in its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) parameters. The PK parameters are intended to analyse the consequences of the drug in the body over a certain period of time including its distribution, metabolism, and clearance [20]. The concentration of drug in the blood and the corresponding impact initiated at the effect site are depicted by the use of PD parameter [21]. Due to fast redistribution and metabolism nature, the intravenously administered anesthetic drug like Propofol is used commonly during surgical activities. The drug concentrations and the drug effect data are measured simultaneously from the parameters of the PKPD models. In medical research, human body is distributed in different parts depending on the flow of blood [11]. This compartmental modelling describes the basic approach demonstrating the procedure of absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug from the patient's body [13] and relating plasma-drug values to PD parameters. In this work, four-dimensional integrated PKPD model is used because of its adequate accuracy and computational efficacy [16]. The infusion and elimination of the drug between these compartments take place through the use of rate constants (q12, q21, q13, q31) as depicted in Figure 2 [17]. The arrangement of this compartmental modelling consists of three compartments with volumes V1, V2, and V3, respectively. The primary compartment represents the intravascular blood, rapid peripheral compartment shows the muscles, and the slow peripheral compartment denotes the fats in the body. The complexity of PKPD model can be enhanced by increasing the number of compartments showing the more detailed infusion profile of drug in patient's body.


Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy.

Khaqan A, Bilal M, Ilyas M, Ijaz B, Ali Riaz R - Comput Math Methods Med (2016)

Integrated PKPD model.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4863132&req=5

fig2: Integrated PKPD model.
Mentions: The clinical behavior of the hypnotic drug (Propofol) is categorized in its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) parameters. The PK parameters are intended to analyse the consequences of the drug in the body over a certain period of time including its distribution, metabolism, and clearance [20]. The concentration of drug in the blood and the corresponding impact initiated at the effect site are depicted by the use of PD parameter [21]. Due to fast redistribution and metabolism nature, the intravenously administered anesthetic drug like Propofol is used commonly during surgical activities. The drug concentrations and the drug effect data are measured simultaneously from the parameters of the PKPD models. In medical research, human body is distributed in different parts depending on the flow of blood [11]. This compartmental modelling describes the basic approach demonstrating the procedure of absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug from the patient's body [13] and relating plasma-drug values to PD parameters. In this work, four-dimensional integrated PKPD model is used because of its adequate accuracy and computational efficacy [16]. The infusion and elimination of the drug between these compartments take place through the use of rate constants (q12, q21, q13, q31) as depicted in Figure 2 [17]. The arrangement of this compartmental modelling consists of three compartments with volumes V1, V2, and V3, respectively. The primary compartment represents the intravascular blood, rapid peripheral compartment shows the muscles, and the slow peripheral compartment denotes the fats in the body. The complexity of PKPD model can be enhanced by increasing the number of compartments showing the more detailed infusion profile of drug in patient's body.

Bottom Line: In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery.The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery.The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shahzad, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH) during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI) systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus