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Spatial and temporal aspects of visual backward masking in children and young adolescents.

Pilz KS, Kunchulia M, Parkosadze K, Herzog MH - Atten Percept Psychophys (2016)

Bottom Line: We found that children had significantly longer vernier durations than either young adolescents or adults.However, children's spatial and temporal processing of complex masks was very similar to that of young adolescents and adults.We suggest that spatiotemporal processing related to visual backward masking is already fully developed at age 7, whereas the attentional processes related to target enhancement only mature in young adolescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, William Guild Building, Aberdeen, AB243FX, UK. k.s.pilz@abdn.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The development of visual functions is very diverse. Some visual functions mature within the first year of life, whereas maturation for other functions extends into adolescence. The reasons for these developmental differences are largely unknown. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal processing in children (7-9 years, n = 15), young adolescents (11-13 years, n = 26), and adults (18-33 years, n = 24) using the shine-through visual backward-masking paradigm. We found that children had significantly longer vernier durations than either young adolescents or adults. However, children's spatial and temporal processing of complex masks was very similar to that of young adolescents and adults. We suggest that spatiotemporal processing related to visual backward masking is already fully developed at age 7, whereas the attentional processes related to target enhancement only mature in young adolescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Thresholds for the 25-element, the gap, and the 5–25 grating for all participant groups (Step 3). Error bars represent SEMs
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Fig4: Thresholds for the 25-element, the gap, and the 5–25 grating for all participant groups (Step 3). Error bars represent SEMs

Mentions: We used a gap grating and a 5–25 grating to investigate the effects of age on spatial and temporal processing. To compensate for individual differences, we used the individually determined VDs and ISIs from Steps 1 and 2. Due to this normalization process, we expected performance to be similar for all age groups. However, despite the normalization, children had larger thresholds than both young adolescents and adults. An ANOVA showed significant differences between the groups for the 25-element grating [F(2, 62) = 4.21, p < .05, η2 = .12], in that the thresholds for that grating were significantly higher for children than for adults [t(23) = 2.3, p < .05], but no significant difference between young adolescents and children [t(19) = 1.8, p = .08] or between young adolescents and adults [t(43) = 0.9, p = .33]. We found no significant differences between age groups for the gap [F(2, 62) = 2.7, p = .8] or the 5–25 [F(2, 62) = 2.5, p = .9; Fig. 4, Table 3] grating. To specifically test for the effects of spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, regardless of general masking performance, the thresholds for the 25-element grating were subtracted from those for the gap and 5–25 gratings, as we described above. Normalized data were significantly different from zero for both inhomogeneous gratings for all three age groups (Table 4), which indicates that spatial and temporal disturbances to the grating decrease performance.Fig. 4


Spatial and temporal aspects of visual backward masking in children and young adolescents.

Pilz KS, Kunchulia M, Parkosadze K, Herzog MH - Atten Percept Psychophys (2016)

Thresholds for the 25-element, the gap, and the 5–25 grating for all participant groups (Step 3). Error bars represent SEMs
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4863035&req=5

Fig4: Thresholds for the 25-element, the gap, and the 5–25 grating for all participant groups (Step 3). Error bars represent SEMs
Mentions: We used a gap grating and a 5–25 grating to investigate the effects of age on spatial and temporal processing. To compensate for individual differences, we used the individually determined VDs and ISIs from Steps 1 and 2. Due to this normalization process, we expected performance to be similar for all age groups. However, despite the normalization, children had larger thresholds than both young adolescents and adults. An ANOVA showed significant differences between the groups for the 25-element grating [F(2, 62) = 4.21, p < .05, η2 = .12], in that the thresholds for that grating were significantly higher for children than for adults [t(23) = 2.3, p < .05], but no significant difference between young adolescents and children [t(19) = 1.8, p = .08] or between young adolescents and adults [t(43) = 0.9, p = .33]. We found no significant differences between age groups for the gap [F(2, 62) = 2.7, p = .8] or the 5–25 [F(2, 62) = 2.5, p = .9; Fig. 4, Table 3] grating. To specifically test for the effects of spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, regardless of general masking performance, the thresholds for the 25-element grating were subtracted from those for the gap and 5–25 gratings, as we described above. Normalized data were significantly different from zero for both inhomogeneous gratings for all three age groups (Table 4), which indicates that spatial and temporal disturbances to the grating decrease performance.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: We found that children had significantly longer vernier durations than either young adolescents or adults.However, children's spatial and temporal processing of complex masks was very similar to that of young adolescents and adults.We suggest that spatiotemporal processing related to visual backward masking is already fully developed at age 7, whereas the attentional processes related to target enhancement only mature in young adolescence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, William Guild Building, Aberdeen, AB243FX, UK. k.s.pilz@abdn.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The development of visual functions is very diverse. Some visual functions mature within the first year of life, whereas maturation for other functions extends into adolescence. The reasons for these developmental differences are largely unknown. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal processing in children (7-9 years, n = 15), young adolescents (11-13 years, n = 26), and adults (18-33 years, n = 24) using the shine-through visual backward-masking paradigm. We found that children had significantly longer vernier durations than either young adolescents or adults. However, children's spatial and temporal processing of complex masks was very similar to that of young adolescents and adults. We suggest that spatiotemporal processing related to visual backward masking is already fully developed at age 7, whereas the attentional processes related to target enhancement only mature in young adolescence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus