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Long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (Olkusz area of Zn-Pb ores, Poland).

Kicińska A, Gruszecka-Kosowska A - Environ Monit Assess (2016)

Bottom Line: However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %.The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno.The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30 av., 30-059, Kraków, Poland. kicinska@geol.agh.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
The authors present the changes of the As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent Agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch Betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a Zn-Pb industrial region of Olkusz (Poland) in 1994 and 2014. The highest amounts of Cd (12 ppm) and Zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'Bolesław' in Bukowno. However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %. The highest contents of Fe (2674 ppm), Mn (130 ppm) and Pb (334 ppm) in this grass species are in the vicinity of the closed Olkusz mine. These contents have increased in comparison with the 1994 figures: Fe by 56 %, Mn by 120 % and Pb by 6 %. In the birch leaves, the metal contents averaged for four sites are the following: As 2.1, Cd 6.5, Fe 261, Mn 110, Pb 70 and Zn 1657 ppm, being lower from the figures in 1994. The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno. The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch. In the birch leaves, the contents of the metals are significantly lower than those of the grass blades, but higher from those of the birch seeds collected from the same tree individuals. It is a proof of good functioning of the mechanisms preventing excessive metal amounts from the cell metabolism and of the presence of physiological barriers protecting birch seeds as the generative organs.

No MeSH data available.


Metal content in betula leaves (washed and unwashed) in 1994 and 2014
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Fig2: Metal content in betula leaves (washed and unwashed) in 1994 and 2014

Mentions: Up to now, two sources of metals affecting the plants growing in the OOA have been indicated. The first is the so-called soil load, understood not only as the total content of metals, but as the bioavailable forms of ions present in the soil environment. High amounts of metals in the soil affect the morphology of roots: they dry, get deformed, have the growth limited and are deprived of symbiotic mycelia. These are results of a disturbed histogenesis, improper development of lateral roots or unbalanced tissue growth (Cabała 2009). The other source is represented by the so-called atmospheric load, understood as the total of various substances: polar (gases and dust) and nonpolar (mainly organic compounds) polluting the air (Poborski 1991; Kicińska-Świderska 2004). If deposited on the surfaces of the aboveground plant fragments, they can enter their inner parts via a stomatal and/or extrastomatal uptake and be included in (or partly excluded from) plant metabolic processes. Mechanisms of a fast excluding the excessive, free ions that enter plant cells via a metabolic route result in the formation of its tolerance to some elements. Such a process depends on a plant species, its ontogenic traits and the type of the element (Ernst 2006). The amounts of metals that can be present on aboveground plant parts were calculated comparing the metal contents in washed and not washed samples of birch leaves. The results for the years 1994 and 2014 (Fig. 2) indicate the following:Fig. 2


Long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (Olkusz area of Zn-Pb ores, Poland).

Kicińska A, Gruszecka-Kosowska A - Environ Monit Assess (2016)

Metal content in betula leaves (washed and unwashed) in 1994 and 2014
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4863034&req=5

Fig2: Metal content in betula leaves (washed and unwashed) in 1994 and 2014
Mentions: Up to now, two sources of metals affecting the plants growing in the OOA have been indicated. The first is the so-called soil load, understood not only as the total content of metals, but as the bioavailable forms of ions present in the soil environment. High amounts of metals in the soil affect the morphology of roots: they dry, get deformed, have the growth limited and are deprived of symbiotic mycelia. These are results of a disturbed histogenesis, improper development of lateral roots or unbalanced tissue growth (Cabała 2009). The other source is represented by the so-called atmospheric load, understood as the total of various substances: polar (gases and dust) and nonpolar (mainly organic compounds) polluting the air (Poborski 1991; Kicińska-Świderska 2004). If deposited on the surfaces of the aboveground plant fragments, they can enter their inner parts via a stomatal and/or extrastomatal uptake and be included in (or partly excluded from) plant metabolic processes. Mechanisms of a fast excluding the excessive, free ions that enter plant cells via a metabolic route result in the formation of its tolerance to some elements. Such a process depends on a plant species, its ontogenic traits and the type of the element (Ernst 2006). The amounts of metals that can be present on aboveground plant parts were calculated comparing the metal contents in washed and not washed samples of birch leaves. The results for the years 1994 and 2014 (Fig. 2) indicate the following:Fig. 2

Bottom Line: However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %.The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno.The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30 av., 30-059, Kraków, Poland. kicinska@geol.agh.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
The authors present the changes of the As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent Agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch Betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a Zn-Pb industrial region of Olkusz (Poland) in 1994 and 2014. The highest amounts of Cd (12 ppm) and Zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'Bolesław' in Bukowno. However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %. The highest contents of Fe (2674 ppm), Mn (130 ppm) and Pb (334 ppm) in this grass species are in the vicinity of the closed Olkusz mine. These contents have increased in comparison with the 1994 figures: Fe by 56 %, Mn by 120 % and Pb by 6 %. In the birch leaves, the metal contents averaged for four sites are the following: As 2.1, Cd 6.5, Fe 261, Mn 110, Pb 70 and Zn 1657 ppm, being lower from the figures in 1994. The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno. The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch. In the birch leaves, the contents of the metals are significantly lower than those of the grass blades, but higher from those of the birch seeds collected from the same tree individuals. It is a proof of good functioning of the mechanisms preventing excessive metal amounts from the cell metabolism and of the presence of physiological barriers protecting birch seeds as the generative organs.

No MeSH data available.