Limits...
Long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (Olkusz area of Zn-Pb ores, Poland).

Kicińska A, Gruszecka-Kosowska A - Environ Monit Assess (2016)

Bottom Line: However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %.The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno.The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30 av., 30-059, Kraków, Poland. kicinska@geol.agh.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
The authors present the changes of the As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent Agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch Betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a Zn-Pb industrial region of Olkusz (Poland) in 1994 and 2014. The highest amounts of Cd (12 ppm) and Zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'Bolesław' in Bukowno. However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %. The highest contents of Fe (2674 ppm), Mn (130 ppm) and Pb (334 ppm) in this grass species are in the vicinity of the closed Olkusz mine. These contents have increased in comparison with the 1994 figures: Fe by 56 %, Mn by 120 % and Pb by 6 %. In the birch leaves, the metal contents averaged for four sites are the following: As 2.1, Cd 6.5, Fe 261, Mn 110, Pb 70 and Zn 1657 ppm, being lower from the figures in 1994. The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno. The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch. In the birch leaves, the contents of the metals are significantly lower than those of the grass blades, but higher from those of the birch seeds collected from the same tree individuals. It is a proof of good functioning of the mechanisms preventing excessive metal amounts from the cell metabolism and of the presence of physiological barriers protecting birch seeds as the generative organs.

No MeSH data available.


Sampling sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4863034&req=5

Fig1: Sampling sites

Mentions: The sites of the investigations carried out at the end of September 2014 were exactly the same as those of the analogue investigations that had been conducted in 1994 (Fig. 1, points I–IV); it allowed us to record long-term changes of the metal contents of some plants occupying these four sites. The habitats differ one from another first of all in their distance from and direction (wind rose) against major emitters (ZGH, flotation-tailing ponds and major transport routes). The research material collected in each of the sites included the following: 30 aboveground parts of the grass species Ac (symbols of samples G/I–G/IV), 1 kg of leaves of the tree species Bp (symbols BL/I–BL/IV) and 200–300 g seeds of the even-aged individuals of the pioneer tree Bp (symbols BS/I–BS/IV). The leaves of the birch trees from each habitat were divided into two parts. One of them was washed three times with 300 ml distilled water and next dried (symbol of samples BLw/I–BLw/IV); the other was not washed (symbol of samples BLuw/I–BLuw/IV).The contents of metals present on and inside the leaves were analysed. The load of metals (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) on leaves of the betula trees in 1994 and 2014 was calculated for the specified habitats as the difference between the metal contents of the unwashed and washed leaves (BLUW–BLW).Fig. 1


Long-term changes of metal contents in two metallophyte species (Olkusz area of Zn-Pb ores, Poland).

Kicińska A, Gruszecka-Kosowska A - Environ Monit Assess (2016)

Sampling sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4863034&req=5

Fig1: Sampling sites
Mentions: The sites of the investigations carried out at the end of September 2014 were exactly the same as those of the analogue investigations that had been conducted in 1994 (Fig. 1, points I–IV); it allowed us to record long-term changes of the metal contents of some plants occupying these four sites. The habitats differ one from another first of all in their distance from and direction (wind rose) against major emitters (ZGH, flotation-tailing ponds and major transport routes). The research material collected in each of the sites included the following: 30 aboveground parts of the grass species Ac (symbols of samples G/I–G/IV), 1 kg of leaves of the tree species Bp (symbols BL/I–BL/IV) and 200–300 g seeds of the even-aged individuals of the pioneer tree Bp (symbols BS/I–BS/IV). The leaves of the birch trees from each habitat were divided into two parts. One of them was washed three times with 300 ml distilled water and next dried (symbol of samples BLw/I–BLw/IV); the other was not washed (symbol of samples BLuw/I–BLuw/IV).The contents of metals present on and inside the leaves were analysed. The load of metals (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) on leaves of the betula trees in 1994 and 2014 was calculated for the specified habitats as the difference between the metal contents of the unwashed and washed leaves (BLUW–BLW).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %.The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno.The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30 av., 30-059, Kraków, Poland. kicinska@geol.agh.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
The authors present the changes of the As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents in two plant-considered metallophytes: common bent Agrostis capillaris (blades) and birch Betula pendula (leaves and seeds), recorded in a Zn-Pb industrial region of Olkusz (Poland) in 1994 and 2014. The highest amounts of Cd (12 ppm) and Zn (2524 ppm) in the common bent occur in the vicinity of the mining and metallurgical works 'Bolesław' in Bukowno. However, these values are significantly lower than those in 1994: Cd by 87 % and Zn by 52 %. The highest contents of Fe (2674 ppm), Mn (130 ppm) and Pb (334 ppm) in this grass species are in the vicinity of the closed Olkusz mine. These contents have increased in comparison with the 1994 figures: Fe by 56 %, Mn by 120 % and Pb by 6 %. In the birch leaves, the metal contents averaged for four sites are the following: As 2.1, Cd 6.5, Fe 261, Mn 110, Pb 70 and Zn 1657 ppm, being lower from the figures in 1994. The highest As, Fe and Pb contents of birch leaves occur in the habitat closest to the former Olkusz mine, while those of Cd, Mn and Zn in the habitat distant at 100 m from the active plant in Bukowno. The common bent grass generates better resistance mechanisms against the metals than does the birch. In the birch leaves, the contents of the metals are significantly lower than those of the grass blades, but higher from those of the birch seeds collected from the same tree individuals. It is a proof of good functioning of the mechanisms preventing excessive metal amounts from the cell metabolism and of the presence of physiological barriers protecting birch seeds as the generative organs.

No MeSH data available.