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Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

Liew F, Martin ME, Tappel RC, Heijstra BD, Mihalcea C, Köpke M - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change.Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail.Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: LanzaTech, Inc. Skokie, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overview of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and energy conserving mechanisms of acetogen C. autoethanogenum. The WLP is central to the gas fermentation platform for carbon fixation. Noteworthy enzymes are in labeled in blue. The enzymes involved in energy conservation are shown in purple. Acronyms: 2,3-BDO, 2,3-butanediol; AOR, aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ACS, acetyl-CoA synthase; CODH, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Nfn, transhydrogenase; PFOR, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Rnf, Rhodocbacter nitrogen fixation; THF, Tetrahydrofolate; WGS, water-gas shift reaction.
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Figure 2: Overview of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and energy conserving mechanisms of acetogen C. autoethanogenum. The WLP is central to the gas fermentation platform for carbon fixation. Noteworthy enzymes are in labeled in blue. The enzymes involved in energy conservation are shown in purple. Acronyms: 2,3-BDO, 2,3-butanediol; AOR, aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ACS, acetyl-CoA synthase; CODH, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Nfn, transhydrogenase; PFOR, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Rnf, Rhodocbacter nitrogen fixation; THF, Tetrahydrofolate; WGS, water-gas shift reaction.

Mentions: To fix the relatively oxidized carbon contained in these various syngas sources, acetogens (and other gas-fermenting microorganisms) require reducing equivalents in the form of electrons (such as NAD(P)H or reduced ferredoxin) to reduce the carbon to the central building block acetyl-CoA and further to reduced products such as alcohols. CO and H2 present in syngas themselves can provide these reducing equivalents (see Figure 2 and Section Acetogens and Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway below) by oxidation to CO2 and water (protons), respectively. Reducing equivalents can also be derived from sources other than the syngas sources discussed above.


Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

Liew F, Martin ME, Tappel RC, Heijstra BD, Mihalcea C, Köpke M - Front Microbiol (2016)

Overview of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and energy conserving mechanisms of acetogen C. autoethanogenum. The WLP is central to the gas fermentation platform for carbon fixation. Noteworthy enzymes are in labeled in blue. The enzymes involved in energy conservation are shown in purple. Acronyms: 2,3-BDO, 2,3-butanediol; AOR, aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ACS, acetyl-CoA synthase; CODH, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Nfn, transhydrogenase; PFOR, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Rnf, Rhodocbacter nitrogen fixation; THF, Tetrahydrofolate; WGS, water-gas shift reaction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4862988&req=5

Figure 2: Overview of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and energy conserving mechanisms of acetogen C. autoethanogenum. The WLP is central to the gas fermentation platform for carbon fixation. Noteworthy enzymes are in labeled in blue. The enzymes involved in energy conservation are shown in purple. Acronyms: 2,3-BDO, 2,3-butanediol; AOR, aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; ACS, acetyl-CoA synthase; CODH, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Nfn, transhydrogenase; PFOR, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Rnf, Rhodocbacter nitrogen fixation; THF, Tetrahydrofolate; WGS, water-gas shift reaction.
Mentions: To fix the relatively oxidized carbon contained in these various syngas sources, acetogens (and other gas-fermenting microorganisms) require reducing equivalents in the form of electrons (such as NAD(P)H or reduced ferredoxin) to reduce the carbon to the central building block acetyl-CoA and further to reduced products such as alcohols. CO and H2 present in syngas themselves can provide these reducing equivalents (see Figure 2 and Section Acetogens and Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway below) by oxidation to CO2 and water (protons), respectively. Reducing equivalents can also be derived from sources other than the syngas sources discussed above.

Bottom Line: There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change.Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail.Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: LanzaTech, Inc. Skokie, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus