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Hysteresis in Transport Critical-Current Measurements of Oxide Superconductors

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ABSTRACT

We have investigated magnetic hysteresis in transport critical-current (Ic) measurements of Ag-matrix (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10–x (Bi-2223) and AgMg-matrix Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) tapes. The effect of magnetic hysteresis on the measured critical current of high temperature superconductors is a very important consideration for every measurement procedure that involves more than one sweep of magnetic field, changes in field angle, or changes in temperature at a given field. The existence of this hysteresis is well known; however, the implications for a measurement standard or interlaboratory comparisons are often ignored and the measurements are often made in the most expedient way. A key finding is that Ic at a given angle, determined by sweeping the angles in a given magnetic field, can be 17 % different from the Ic determined after the angle was fixed in zero field and the magnet then ramped to the given field. Which value is correct is addressed in the context that the proper sequence of measurement conditions reflects the application conditions. The hysteresis in angle-sweep and temperature-sweep data is related to the hysteresis observed when the field is swept up and down at constant angle and temperature. The necessity of heating a specimen to near its transition temperature to reset it to an initial state between measurements at different angles and temperatures is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Ic/Ic(virgin 90°) at 0.1 µV/cm versus angle for the Bi-2223 specimen at 20 K for various sweep directions and magnetic fields: (a) 0.2 T, (b) 1 T, (c) 5 T.
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f16-j64goo: Ic/Ic(virgin 90°) at 0.1 µV/cm versus angle for the Bi-2223 specimen at 20 K for various sweep directions and magnetic fields: (a) 0.2 T, (b) 1 T, (c) 5 T.

Mentions: Similar angle-sweep hysteresis was observed at 0.2 T and 1 T at 4 K, and systematically less hysteresis was observed at higher temperatures and all fields. Figures 15a, 15b, 16, and 17 show these angle-sweep and virgin data. The separation of the branches with sweep direction is significant for all measured fields at 4 K and for 0.2 T and 1 T at 20 K. There is very little hysteresis at 5 T and 20 K, and at 1 T and 5 T at 35 K. In all cases, the lower branches (sweep towards 0°) of the angle-sweep curve yield results that are closer to the virgin data than the upper branches. Also, the extra features (local maximum near 0° and extra bump when approaching 90°) decrease as the amount of hysteresis decreases. The largest difference between the virgin and swept data occurs at 90°.


Hysteresis in Transport Critical-Current Measurements of Oxide Superconductors
Ic/Ic(virgin 90°) at 0.1 µV/cm versus angle for the Bi-2223 specimen at 20 K for various sweep directions and magnetic fields: (a) 0.2 T, (b) 1 T, (c) 5 T.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4862823&req=5

f16-j64goo: Ic/Ic(virgin 90°) at 0.1 µV/cm versus angle for the Bi-2223 specimen at 20 K for various sweep directions and magnetic fields: (a) 0.2 T, (b) 1 T, (c) 5 T.
Mentions: Similar angle-sweep hysteresis was observed at 0.2 T and 1 T at 4 K, and systematically less hysteresis was observed at higher temperatures and all fields. Figures 15a, 15b, 16, and 17 show these angle-sweep and virgin data. The separation of the branches with sweep direction is significant for all measured fields at 4 K and for 0.2 T and 1 T at 20 K. There is very little hysteresis at 5 T and 20 K, and at 1 T and 5 T at 35 K. In all cases, the lower branches (sweep towards 0°) of the angle-sweep curve yield results that are closer to the virgin data than the upper branches. Also, the extra features (local maximum near 0° and extra bump when approaching 90°) decrease as the amount of hysteresis decreases. The largest difference between the virgin and swept data occurs at 90°.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We have investigated magnetic hysteresis in transport critical-current (Ic) measurements of Ag-matrix (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10–x (Bi-2223) and AgMg-matrix Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) tapes. The effect of magnetic hysteresis on the measured critical current of high temperature superconductors is a very important consideration for every measurement procedure that involves more than one sweep of magnetic field, changes in field angle, or changes in temperature at a given field. The existence of this hysteresis is well known; however, the implications for a measurement standard or interlaboratory comparisons are often ignored and the measurements are often made in the most expedient way. A key finding is that Ic at a given angle, determined by sweeping the angles in a given magnetic field, can be 17 % different from the Ic determined after the angle was fixed in zero field and the magnet then ramped to the given field. Which value is correct is addressed in the context that the proper sequence of measurement conditions reflects the application conditions. The hysteresis in angle-sweep and temperature-sweep data is related to the hysteresis observed when the field is swept up and down at constant angle and temperature. The necessity of heating a specimen to near its transition temperature to reset it to an initial state between measurements at different angles and temperatures is discussed.

No MeSH data available.