Limits...
Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians.

Gupta P, Sodhi KS, Saxena AK, Khandelwal N, Singhi P - J Pediatr Neurosci (2016 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage.Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation.Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

ABSTRACT
Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Foramen magnum view reveals high resolution image of the posterior fossa. CH: Cerebellar hemisphere; V: Vermis; Short arrow: Brainstem; Long arrow: Fourth ventricle
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4862295&req=5

Figure 2: Foramen magnum view reveals high resolution image of the posterior fossa. CH: Cerebellar hemisphere; V: Vermis; Short arrow: Brainstem; Long arrow: Fourth ventricle

Mentions: High-resolution imaging of the cranium requires high-frequency transducers (5–7.5 MHz). Wider far filed of view is provided by a sector transducer. Linear array, higher frequency transducers (7–12 MHz) are especially useful for near-field scanning, recommended for evaluation of extra-axial collections, superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, cerebral edema, and gyral-sulcal anatomy [Figure 1] in suspected migrational anomalies.[3] These transducers are also useful for scanning through the posterior fontanelle, mastoid fontanelle and for foramen magnum approach [Figure 2]. High-quality images are obtained by holding the transducer firmly between the thumb and index finger and resting the lateral aspect of the hand on the infant's head to ensure stability. Need for maintaining body temperature of the neonate cannot be overemphasized. Aseptic precautions are equally important and achieved by hand washing and transducer cleansing (with a manufacturer-approved disinfectant) between examinations.


Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians.

Gupta P, Sodhi KS, Saxena AK, Khandelwal N, Singhi P - J Pediatr Neurosci (2016 Jan-Mar)

Foramen magnum view reveals high resolution image of the posterior fossa. CH: Cerebellar hemisphere; V: Vermis; Short arrow: Brainstem; Long arrow: Fourth ventricle
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4862295&req=5

Figure 2: Foramen magnum view reveals high resolution image of the posterior fossa. CH: Cerebellar hemisphere; V: Vermis; Short arrow: Brainstem; Long arrow: Fourth ventricle
Mentions: High-resolution imaging of the cranium requires high-frequency transducers (5–7.5 MHz). Wider far filed of view is provided by a sector transducer. Linear array, higher frequency transducers (7–12 MHz) are especially useful for near-field scanning, recommended for evaluation of extra-axial collections, superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, cerebral edema, and gyral-sulcal anatomy [Figure 1] in suspected migrational anomalies.[3] These transducers are also useful for scanning through the posterior fontanelle, mastoid fontanelle and for foramen magnum approach [Figure 2]. High-quality images are obtained by holding the transducer firmly between the thumb and index finger and resting the lateral aspect of the hand on the infant's head to ensure stability. Need for maintaining body temperature of the neonate cannot be overemphasized. Aseptic precautions are equally important and achieved by hand washing and transducer cleansing (with a manufacturer-approved disinfectant) between examinations.

Bottom Line: Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage.Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation.Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

ABSTRACT
Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus