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Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon.

Jodaa Holm H, Wadsworth S, Bjelland AK, Krasnov A, Evensen Ø, Skugor S - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Bottom Line: Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth.In contrast, genes involved in muscle contraction, lipid and glucose metabolism were found more highly expressed in the skin of infected control fish.In addition, regulation of genes involved in the metabolism of iron, lipid and sugar suggested an interplay between metabolism of nutrients and mechanisms of resistance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Sea Lice Research Centre, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 8146 Dep, 0033, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of phytochemicals is a promising solution in biological control against salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate if Atlantic salmon fed two different doses of glucosinolate-enriched feeds would be protected against lice infection. The effects of feeding high dose of glucosinolates before the infection, and of high and low doses five weeks into the infection were studied.

Methods: Skin was screened by 15 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR.

Results: A 25 % reduction (P < 0.05) in lice counts was obtained in the low dose group and a 17 % reduction in the high dose group compared to fish fed control feed. Microarray analysis revealed induction of over 50 interferon (IFN)-related genes prior to lice infection. Genes upregulated five weeks into the infection in glucosinolate-enriched dietary groups included Type 1 pro-inflammatory factors, antimicrobial and acute phase proteins, extracellular matrix remodeling proteases and iron homeostasis regulators. In contrast, genes involved in muscle contraction, lipid and glucose metabolism were found more highly expressed in the skin of infected control fish.

Conclusions: Atlantic salmon fed glucosinolates had a significantly lower number of sea lice at the end of the experimental challenge. Feeding glucosinolates coincided with increased expression of IFN-related genes, and higher expression profiles of Type 1 immune genes late into the infection. In addition, regulation of genes involved in the metabolism of iron, lipid and sugar suggested an interplay between metabolism of nutrients and mechanisms of resistance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Genes encoding cytoskeletal and myofiber (contractile) proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, growth factors and collagens with correlated expression profiles (microarray results). a cumulative expression changes assessed as Σlog2 (ER); b mean log2 (ER); numbers of features are in parentheses. c Tabulated are examples of the most regulated genes involved in myofiber and sugar metabolism. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined). d Tabulated examples of most regulated genes involved in tissue remodeling. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined)
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Fig3: Genes encoding cytoskeletal and myofiber (contractile) proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, growth factors and collagens with correlated expression profiles (microarray results). a cumulative expression changes assessed as Σlog2 (ER); b mean log2 (ER); numbers of features are in parentheses. c Tabulated are examples of the most regulated genes involved in myofiber and sugar metabolism. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined). d Tabulated examples of most regulated genes involved in tissue remodeling. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined)

Mentions: In GLs-containing feed groups, lice infection resulted in the increased expression of multiple genes and a large part of the upregulated genes was categorised as immune genes. A similar trend of expression among genes that were grouped according to their biological function was found within, but not between the treatments (Figs. 2 and 3). The largest group (66 features, Fig. 2a-c) consisted of genes associated with innate antiviral immunity [41]. In this study, innate antiviral genes were strongly upregulated in the not-infected GLs-group (NI-HD) compared to NI-C, lice infection resulted in slight downregulation in I-C, while I-LD and I-HD showed intermediate values (Fig. 2c). One example is myxovirus resistance 1 that was upregulated 2.86-fold in NI-HD, downregulated following lice infection in I-C, while being significantly increased (1.61-fold) in I-HD (Fig. 2c). Receptor transporting protein 3 was on the top of the list with 4.6-fold upregulation in NI-HD compared to NI-C (Fig. 2c). To note was also the concerted induction of several GTPases and GTP binding proteins, which are known as important components of the cellular antiviral response. Slight GLs-mediated induction of genes involved in antigen presentation was suppressed after lice infection, with no recovery five weeks into the infection when most lice reached the preadult stage (Fig. 2d).Fig. 2


Dietary phytochemicals modulate skin gene expression profiles and result in reduced lice counts after experimental infection in Atlantic salmon.

Jodaa Holm H, Wadsworth S, Bjelland AK, Krasnov A, Evensen Ø, Skugor S - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Genes encoding cytoskeletal and myofiber (contractile) proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, growth factors and collagens with correlated expression profiles (microarray results). a cumulative expression changes assessed as Σlog2 (ER); b mean log2 (ER); numbers of features are in parentheses. c Tabulated are examples of the most regulated genes involved in myofiber and sugar metabolism. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined). d Tabulated examples of most regulated genes involved in tissue remodeling. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4862074&req=5

Fig3: Genes encoding cytoskeletal and myofiber (contractile) proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, growth factors and collagens with correlated expression profiles (microarray results). a cumulative expression changes assessed as Σlog2 (ER); b mean log2 (ER); numbers of features are in parentheses. c Tabulated are examples of the most regulated genes involved in myofiber and sugar metabolism. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined). d Tabulated examples of most regulated genes involved in tissue remodeling. Data are mean fold calculated from log2 (ER) values and compared to NI-C (significantly different values are underlined)
Mentions: In GLs-containing feed groups, lice infection resulted in the increased expression of multiple genes and a large part of the upregulated genes was categorised as immune genes. A similar trend of expression among genes that were grouped according to their biological function was found within, but not between the treatments (Figs. 2 and 3). The largest group (66 features, Fig. 2a-c) consisted of genes associated with innate antiviral immunity [41]. In this study, innate antiviral genes were strongly upregulated in the not-infected GLs-group (NI-HD) compared to NI-C, lice infection resulted in slight downregulation in I-C, while I-LD and I-HD showed intermediate values (Fig. 2c). One example is myxovirus resistance 1 that was upregulated 2.86-fold in NI-HD, downregulated following lice infection in I-C, while being significantly increased (1.61-fold) in I-HD (Fig. 2c). Receptor transporting protein 3 was on the top of the list with 4.6-fold upregulation in NI-HD compared to NI-C (Fig. 2c). To note was also the concerted induction of several GTPases and GTP binding proteins, which are known as important components of the cellular antiviral response. Slight GLs-mediated induction of genes involved in antigen presentation was suppressed after lice infection, with no recovery five weeks into the infection when most lice reached the preadult stage (Fig. 2d).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth.In contrast, genes involved in muscle contraction, lipid and glucose metabolism were found more highly expressed in the skin of infected control fish.In addition, regulation of genes involved in the metabolism of iron, lipid and sugar suggested an interplay between metabolism of nutrients and mechanisms of resistance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Sea Lice Research Centre, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 8146 Dep, 0033, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of phytochemicals is a promising solution in biological control against salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Glucosinolates belong to a diverse group of compounds used as protection against herbivores by plants in the family Brassicaceae, while in vertebrates, ingested glucosinolates exert health-promoting effects due to their antioxidant and detoxifying properties as well as effects on cell proliferation and growth. The aim of this study was to investigate if Atlantic salmon fed two different doses of glucosinolate-enriched feeds would be protected against lice infection. The effects of feeding high dose of glucosinolates before the infection, and of high and low doses five weeks into the infection were studied.

Methods: Skin was screened by 15 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR.

Results: A 25 % reduction (P < 0.05) in lice counts was obtained in the low dose group and a 17 % reduction in the high dose group compared to fish fed control feed. Microarray analysis revealed induction of over 50 interferon (IFN)-related genes prior to lice infection. Genes upregulated five weeks into the infection in glucosinolate-enriched dietary groups included Type 1 pro-inflammatory factors, antimicrobial and acute phase proteins, extracellular matrix remodeling proteases and iron homeostasis regulators. In contrast, genes involved in muscle contraction, lipid and glucose metabolism were found more highly expressed in the skin of infected control fish.

Conclusions: Atlantic salmon fed glucosinolates had a significantly lower number of sea lice at the end of the experimental challenge. Feeding glucosinolates coincided with increased expression of IFN-related genes, and higher expression profiles of Type 1 immune genes late into the infection. In addition, regulation of genes involved in the metabolism of iron, lipid and sugar suggested an interplay between metabolism of nutrients and mechanisms of resistance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus