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Emergence of mixed infection of Beijing/Non-Beijing strains among multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pakistan

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes. Sputum samples from 102 MDR TB suspects from different cities of Punjab were collected and their record was stored in a database. Sputum samples were evaluated by Ziehl Neelson staining and cultured on Lownstein Jensen medium by Modified Petroff’s method. DST was performed for first-line anti-mycobacterial drugs by indirect proportion method. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were investigated for the presence of IS6110 and further identification as Beijing, Non-Beijing or mixed genotype. Percentage of male and female patients was found to be 58.8 and 41.2 % respectively. DST showed resistance of 93 % of isolates to isoniazid and rifampicin. All of the isolates showed positive results for IS6110 amplification. Based on PCR amplification of Beijing and non-Beijing primer sets 4.9 % of the patients showed infection with pure Beijing isolates, 14.7 % with both Beijing and non-Beijing isolates and 80.3 % with pure non-Beijing isolates. Analysis of IS6110 and Beijing sequences showed the presence of putative transposase conserved domain while non-Beijing sequences were epitomized with RAMP_I_III superfamily domain (CRISPR-associated protein family). TB in Pakistan is predominantly caused by Non-Beijing genotypes, but Beijing strains showed incessant circulation in our community as both single and mixed (co-infecting Non-Beijing and Beijing) strains.

No MeSH data available.


Division of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified products. a PCR amplification with primer set 1 (ISF and ISR; Product size ~124 bp). b PCR amplification with primer set 2 (NB-F and NB-R; Product size 569 bp). c PCR amplification with primer set 3 (BF and BR; Product size 239 bp). L: 100 bp molecular marker; Arabic numerals: clinical samples; NC: negative control (in this case ddH2O)
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Fig2: Division of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified products. a PCR amplification with primer set 1 (ISF and ISR; Product size ~124 bp). b PCR amplification with primer set 2 (NB-F and NB-R; Product size 569 bp). c PCR amplification with primer set 3 (BF and BR; Product size 239 bp). L: 100 bp molecular marker; Arabic numerals: clinical samples; NC: negative control (in this case ddH2O)

Mentions: PCR amplification using primers targeting IS6110 showed positive amplification with 100 % of the total (102) isolates (Fig. 2).


Emergence of mixed infection of Beijing/Non-Beijing strains among multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pakistan
Division of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified products. a PCR amplification with primer set 1 (ISF and ISR; Product size ~124 bp). b PCR amplification with primer set 2 (NB-F and NB-R; Product size 569 bp). c PCR amplification with primer set 3 (BF and BR; Product size 239 bp). L: 100 bp molecular marker; Arabic numerals: clinical samples; NC: negative control (in this case ddH2O)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837763&req=5

Fig2: Division of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified products. a PCR amplification with primer set 1 (ISF and ISR; Product size ~124 bp). b PCR amplification with primer set 2 (NB-F and NB-R; Product size 569 bp). c PCR amplification with primer set 3 (BF and BR; Product size 239 bp). L: 100 bp molecular marker; Arabic numerals: clinical samples; NC: negative control (in this case ddH2O)
Mentions: PCR amplification using primers targeting IS6110 showed positive amplification with 100 % of the total (102) isolates (Fig. 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes. Sputum samples from 102 MDR TB suspects from different cities of Punjab were collected and their record was stored in a database. Sputum samples were evaluated by Ziehl Neelson staining and cultured on Lownstein Jensen medium by Modified Petroff’s method. DST was performed for first-line anti-mycobacterial drugs by indirect proportion method. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were investigated for the presence of IS6110 and further identification as Beijing, Non-Beijing or mixed genotype. Percentage of male and female patients was found to be 58.8 and 41.2 % respectively. DST showed resistance of 93 % of isolates to isoniazid and rifampicin. All of the isolates showed positive results for IS6110 amplification. Based on PCR amplification of Beijing and non-Beijing primer sets 4.9 % of the patients showed infection with pure Beijing isolates, 14.7 % with both Beijing and non-Beijing isolates and 80.3 % with pure non-Beijing isolates. Analysis of IS6110 and Beijing sequences showed the presence of putative transposase conserved domain while non-Beijing sequences were epitomized with RAMP_I_III superfamily domain (CRISPR-associated protein family). TB in Pakistan is predominantly caused by Non-Beijing genotypes, but Beijing strains showed incessant circulation in our community as both single and mixed (co-infecting Non-Beijing and Beijing) strains.

No MeSH data available.