Limits...
Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.


Hazard quotient of cobalt and copper of different vegetables from three sites
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Fig9: Hazard quotient of cobalt and copper of different vegetables from three sites

Mentions: Hazard quotient of cobalt was found more than one for children in almost all vegetables except for fruits and bulb vegetables. Cobalt is component of Vitamin B12 and is important for various physiological functions. But toxicity of higher concentration is widely reported (Simonsen et al. 2012). Maximum hazard quotient for cobalt was from the vegetable samples from site 3 (Fig. 9). Spinach samples from site 1 exhibited highest hazard quotient for copper as evident from Fig. 9. Spinach samples from all the sites can be highly hazardous for children. It is to be noted that we calculated hazard quotient using the minimum dietary requirement of vegetables in balanced diet.Fig. 9


Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Hazard quotient of cobalt and copper of different vegetables from three sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837749&req=5

Fig9: Hazard quotient of cobalt and copper of different vegetables from three sites
Mentions: Hazard quotient of cobalt was found more than one for children in almost all vegetables except for fruits and bulb vegetables. Cobalt is component of Vitamin B12 and is important for various physiological functions. But toxicity of higher concentration is widely reported (Simonsen et al. 2012). Maximum hazard quotient for cobalt was from the vegetable samples from site 3 (Fig. 9). Spinach samples from site 1 exhibited highest hazard quotient for copper as evident from Fig. 9. Spinach samples from all the sites can be highly hazardous for children. It is to be noted that we calculated hazard quotient using the minimum dietary requirement of vegetables in balanced diet.Fig. 9

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.