Limits...
Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.


Hazard quotient of cadmium, lead and iron of different vegetables from three sites
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Fig8: Hazard quotient of cadmium, lead and iron of different vegetables from three sites

Mentions: Health risk associated with any pollutant is dependent upon the level of exposure and amount of absorption by human body. Thus, hazard quotient is a valid tool to assess the level of risk associated with particular pollutant. If level of Hazard quotient is less than 1, the risk associated with exposure of metal is negligible. However if level of hazard quotient is higher than 1, the metal may pose serious health hazards. The estimation of hazard quotient of metals in different vegetables from various sites demonstrated alarming results. Though the concentration of some metals was significantly higher in vegetable samples from wastewater irrigated sites but the health risk associated with these metals was also found to be very higher. Cadmium identified as potential carcinogen by US EPA (2010), was found to be at hazardous level in most of the vegetable samples. Hazard quotient of cadmium was found to be maximum in raddish samples from site 2 which is close proximity to wastewater drain. It was observed that hazard quotient of cadmium was maximum in tuberous vegetables, followed by leafy vegetables. For children the consumption of 11 out of 12 vegetables from wastewater irrigated site was hazardous while 7 and 8 vegetables also from site 1 and 2 respectively, can be hazardous with respect to cadmium. Concentration of lead was within permissible limits for all samples except bottle gourd and lady finger from site 1 and 3 but the hazard quotient associated with lead was below 1 in all samples for adults and children. Iron was found to be above the safe limits in samples of leafy vegetables. Iron though is vital element for human life can cause severe toxicity symptoms when in excess. Fenugreek samples from all sites exhibited the level of hazard quotient associated with iron was highest among all vegetables. Figure 8 represents hazard quotient for adults and children of cadmium, lead and iron in vegetable samples from all the three sites.Fig. 8


Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Hazard quotient of cadmium, lead and iron of different vegetables from three sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837749&req=5

Fig8: Hazard quotient of cadmium, lead and iron of different vegetables from three sites
Mentions: Health risk associated with any pollutant is dependent upon the level of exposure and amount of absorption by human body. Thus, hazard quotient is a valid tool to assess the level of risk associated with particular pollutant. If level of Hazard quotient is less than 1, the risk associated with exposure of metal is negligible. However if level of hazard quotient is higher than 1, the metal may pose serious health hazards. The estimation of hazard quotient of metals in different vegetables from various sites demonstrated alarming results. Though the concentration of some metals was significantly higher in vegetable samples from wastewater irrigated sites but the health risk associated with these metals was also found to be very higher. Cadmium identified as potential carcinogen by US EPA (2010), was found to be at hazardous level in most of the vegetable samples. Hazard quotient of cadmium was found to be maximum in raddish samples from site 2 which is close proximity to wastewater drain. It was observed that hazard quotient of cadmium was maximum in tuberous vegetables, followed by leafy vegetables. For children the consumption of 11 out of 12 vegetables from wastewater irrigated site was hazardous while 7 and 8 vegetables also from site 1 and 2 respectively, can be hazardous with respect to cadmium. Concentration of lead was within permissible limits for all samples except bottle gourd and lady finger from site 1 and 3 but the hazard quotient associated with lead was below 1 in all samples for adults and children. Iron was found to be above the safe limits in samples of leafy vegetables. Iron though is vital element for human life can cause severe toxicity symptoms when in excess. Fenugreek samples from all sites exhibited the level of hazard quotient associated with iron was highest among all vegetables. Figure 8 represents hazard quotient for adults and children of cadmium, lead and iron in vegetable samples from all the three sites.Fig. 8

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.