Limits...
Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.


Metal pollution index of vegetables from different sites
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Fig7: Metal pollution index of vegetables from different sites

Mentions: Metal pollution in samples is reliably estimated using metal pollution index (MPI). Figure 7 demonstrates metal pollution index of vegetable samples from each site. It was found that metal pollution index of vegetable samples from site-3 which is irrigated with wastewater was higher than that of vegetable samples of other sites (except turnip and raddish). Both the tuberous vegetables i.e. raddish and turnip exhibited very interesting results showing that the metal pollution index of these vegetables from all three sites was similar and in case of turnip site 1 and site 2 samples (both in close proximity of wastewater drain) had higher MPI than site 3. Metal pollution index of leafy vegetables like, fenugreek, coriander, mint and spinach was found to be maximum followed by tuberous vegetables like, raddish and turnip. It is to be observed that metal pollution index in spinach from Site 1 was similar to the metal pollution index of spinach from wastewater irrigated site. The general trend of metal pollution index from site 1 was Spinach > Fenugreek > Mint > Turnip > Raddish > Coriander > Brinjal > Bottle Gourd > Lady Finger > Green Chilli > Garlic > Onion. Also, In case of site 2 among all vegetables spinach exhibited maximum metal pollution index (Spinach > Mint > Turnip > Raddish > Coriander > Lady Finger > Fenugreek > Bottle Gourd > Green Chilli > Brinjal > Onion > Garlic). Trend for vegetable samples from site 3 was: Fenugreek > Coriander > Mint > Spinach > Lady Finger > Turnip > Raddish > Brinjal > Onion > Bottle Gourd > Garlic > Green Chilli.Fig. 7


Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Metal pollution index of vegetables from different sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837749&req=5

Fig7: Metal pollution index of vegetables from different sites
Mentions: Metal pollution in samples is reliably estimated using metal pollution index (MPI). Figure 7 demonstrates metal pollution index of vegetable samples from each site. It was found that metal pollution index of vegetable samples from site-3 which is irrigated with wastewater was higher than that of vegetable samples of other sites (except turnip and raddish). Both the tuberous vegetables i.e. raddish and turnip exhibited very interesting results showing that the metal pollution index of these vegetables from all three sites was similar and in case of turnip site 1 and site 2 samples (both in close proximity of wastewater drain) had higher MPI than site 3. Metal pollution index of leafy vegetables like, fenugreek, coriander, mint and spinach was found to be maximum followed by tuberous vegetables like, raddish and turnip. It is to be observed that metal pollution index in spinach from Site 1 was similar to the metal pollution index of spinach from wastewater irrigated site. The general trend of metal pollution index from site 1 was Spinach > Fenugreek > Mint > Turnip > Raddish > Coriander > Brinjal > Bottle Gourd > Lady Finger > Green Chilli > Garlic > Onion. Also, In case of site 2 among all vegetables spinach exhibited maximum metal pollution index (Spinach > Mint > Turnip > Raddish > Coriander > Lady Finger > Fenugreek > Bottle Gourd > Green Chilli > Brinjal > Onion > Garlic). Trend for vegetable samples from site 3 was: Fenugreek > Coriander > Mint > Spinach > Lady Finger > Turnip > Raddish > Brinjal > Onion > Bottle Gourd > Garlic > Green Chilli.Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.