Limits...
Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.


Description of sites
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Fig1: Description of sites

Mentions: Three sites under vegetable cultivation were selected on the basis of exposure to wastewater. From each site the samples were collected from different fields under vegetable cultivation. The sites are represented in Fig. 1. The drains in consideration are highlighted with blue color.Fig. 1


Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.

Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK - Springerplus (2016)

Description of sites
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837749&req=5

Fig1: Description of sites
Mentions: Three sites under vegetable cultivation were selected on the basis of exposure to wastewater. From each site the samples were collected from different fields under vegetable cultivation. The sites are represented in Fig. 1. The drains in consideration are highlighted with blue color.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption.Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites.Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 India.

ABSTRACT
Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.

No MeSH data available.