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The Cajal School in the Peripheral Nervous System: The Transcendent Contributions of Fernando de Castro on the Microscopic Structure of Sensory and Autonomic Motor Ganglia.

de Castro F - Front Neuroanat (2016)

Bottom Line: Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results.In the mid of the 1920's, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field.Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Neurobiología del Desarrollo-GNDe, Instituto Cajal-CSIC Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The fine structure of the autonomic nervous system was largely unknown at the beginning of the second decade of the 20th century. Although relatively anatomists and histologists had studied the subject, even the assays by the great Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel and the Spanish Nobel Prize laureate, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, were incomplete. In a time which witnessed fundamental discoveries by Langley, Loewi and Dale on the physiology of the autonomic nervous system, both reputed researchers entrusted one of their outstanding disciples to the challenge to further investigate autonomic structures: the Russian B.I. Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results. In the mid of the 1920's, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field. In the present work we describe the main discoveries by Fernando de Castro in those years regarding the structure of sympathetic and sensory ganglia, the organization of the synaptic contacts in these ganglia, and the nature of their innervation, later materialized in their respective chapters, personally invited by the editor, in Wilder Penfield's famous textbook on Neurology and the Nervous System. Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A tribute to some pioneers of the study of the autonomic nervous system. (A) Photographic self-portrait of Santiago Ramón y Cajal; his profile is outlined by a chalk sketch of a human brain. (B) Portrait of the recognized Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel. (C) The Russian neuroscientist Lawrentjew looking at the microscope. (D) A detailed drawing from a sympathetic neuron by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, as a good example of the neuronist interpretation of the fine structure of the nervous system. (E) Dogiel’s interpretation of neurons from the Auerbach plexus (published in: Dogiel, 1899), a good example of reticularist vision of the organization nervous system (A–D) are part of Archive Fernando de Castro.
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Figure 1: A tribute to some pioneers of the study of the autonomic nervous system. (A) Photographic self-portrait of Santiago Ramón y Cajal; his profile is outlined by a chalk sketch of a human brain. (B) Portrait of the recognized Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel. (C) The Russian neuroscientist Lawrentjew looking at the microscope. (D) A detailed drawing from a sympathetic neuron by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, as a good example of the neuronist interpretation of the fine structure of the nervous system. (E) Dogiel’s interpretation of neurons from the Auerbach plexus (published in: Dogiel, 1899), a good example of reticularist vision of the organization nervous system (A–D) are part of Archive Fernando de Castro.

Mentions: In spite of all these capital developments in the understanding of the physiology of the peripheral nervous system the study of the fine morphology of the associated anatomical structures and their interconnectivity remained technically and logistically very challenging. Many histologists had tried to resolve the morphological details, among them Alexandre Dogiel, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Michael von Lenhossèk, Gheorghe Marinescu, Jean Nageotte, Károly Schaeffer, Max Bielschowsky, and Giusseppe Levi, for merely citing the most relevant ones (Figures 1A–C; good reviews on prior works can be found in, respectively, de Castro, 1932a, 1951). Dogiel (1852–1922) was the first identifying different types of neuron in somatosensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia (Dogiel, 1899). Studying the enteric ganglia with different histological methods (Ehrlich and Golgi methods, respectively), Dogiel described particular cells with short dendrites later named after him. Cajal discovered the stellate cells with long dendrites (Ramón y Cajal, 1899; Figure 1D; “colossal dendrites” in his own words). This is a good example of the complementarity of the different studies in clear (and sane) scientific competitiveness. It is therefore not surprising that the interpretations of all these pioneers differed almost as much as their nationalities or as the animal species studied. In its apogee at that time, the debate between supporters of “neuronism” (i.e., Cajal) and “reticularism” (Figures 1D,E) was even bitter in this particular field because researchers like Kölliker and Dogiel (both cannot generally be considered as reticularists) thought that the interstitial Cajal cells in the gut were fibroblastic while Cajal proposed their neural origin (for a review on this specific topic, see Szentágothai, 1975; García-López et al., 2009).


The Cajal School in the Peripheral Nervous System: The Transcendent Contributions of Fernando de Castro on the Microscopic Structure of Sensory and Autonomic Motor Ganglia.

de Castro F - Front Neuroanat (2016)

A tribute to some pioneers of the study of the autonomic nervous system. (A) Photographic self-portrait of Santiago Ramón y Cajal; his profile is outlined by a chalk sketch of a human brain. (B) Portrait of the recognized Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel. (C) The Russian neuroscientist Lawrentjew looking at the microscope. (D) A detailed drawing from a sympathetic neuron by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, as a good example of the neuronist interpretation of the fine structure of the nervous system. (E) Dogiel’s interpretation of neurons from the Auerbach plexus (published in: Dogiel, 1899), a good example of reticularist vision of the organization nervous system (A–D) are part of Archive Fernando de Castro.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837679&req=5

Figure 1: A tribute to some pioneers of the study of the autonomic nervous system. (A) Photographic self-portrait of Santiago Ramón y Cajal; his profile is outlined by a chalk sketch of a human brain. (B) Portrait of the recognized Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel. (C) The Russian neuroscientist Lawrentjew looking at the microscope. (D) A detailed drawing from a sympathetic neuron by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, as a good example of the neuronist interpretation of the fine structure of the nervous system. (E) Dogiel’s interpretation of neurons from the Auerbach plexus (published in: Dogiel, 1899), a good example of reticularist vision of the organization nervous system (A–D) are part of Archive Fernando de Castro.
Mentions: In spite of all these capital developments in the understanding of the physiology of the peripheral nervous system the study of the fine morphology of the associated anatomical structures and their interconnectivity remained technically and logistically very challenging. Many histologists had tried to resolve the morphological details, among them Alexandre Dogiel, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Michael von Lenhossèk, Gheorghe Marinescu, Jean Nageotte, Károly Schaeffer, Max Bielschowsky, and Giusseppe Levi, for merely citing the most relevant ones (Figures 1A–C; good reviews on prior works can be found in, respectively, de Castro, 1932a, 1951). Dogiel (1852–1922) was the first identifying different types of neuron in somatosensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia (Dogiel, 1899). Studying the enteric ganglia with different histological methods (Ehrlich and Golgi methods, respectively), Dogiel described particular cells with short dendrites later named after him. Cajal discovered the stellate cells with long dendrites (Ramón y Cajal, 1899; Figure 1D; “colossal dendrites” in his own words). This is a good example of the complementarity of the different studies in clear (and sane) scientific competitiveness. It is therefore not surprising that the interpretations of all these pioneers differed almost as much as their nationalities or as the animal species studied. In its apogee at that time, the debate between supporters of “neuronism” (i.e., Cajal) and “reticularism” (Figures 1D,E) was even bitter in this particular field because researchers like Kölliker and Dogiel (both cannot generally be considered as reticularists) thought that the interstitial Cajal cells in the gut were fibroblastic while Cajal proposed their neural origin (for a review on this specific topic, see Szentágothai, 1975; García-López et al., 2009).

Bottom Line: Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results.In the mid of the 1920's, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field.Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Grupo de Neurobiología del Desarrollo-GNDe, Instituto Cajal-CSIC Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The fine structure of the autonomic nervous system was largely unknown at the beginning of the second decade of the 20th century. Although relatively anatomists and histologists had studied the subject, even the assays by the great Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel and the Spanish Nobel Prize laureate, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, were incomplete. In a time which witnessed fundamental discoveries by Langley, Loewi and Dale on the physiology of the autonomic nervous system, both reputed researchers entrusted one of their outstanding disciples to the challenge to further investigate autonomic structures: the Russian B.I. Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results. In the mid of the 1920's, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field. In the present work we describe the main discoveries by Fernando de Castro in those years regarding the structure of sympathetic and sensory ganglia, the organization of the synaptic contacts in these ganglia, and the nature of their innervation, later materialized in their respective chapters, personally invited by the editor, in Wilder Penfield's famous textbook on Neurology and the Nervous System. Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus