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MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The role of miRNAs in autoimmune inflammation (modified from[35]).APCs are antigen-presenting cells; Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; FDCs are follicular dendritic cells.See text for more details.
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Figure 4: The role of miRNAs in autoimmune inflammation (modified from[35]).APCs are antigen-presenting cells; Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; FDCs are follicular dendritic cells.See text for more details.

Mentions: Analysis of the miRNA profile in AID patients revealed numerous disruptions ofmiRNA expression[35-37],with the most frequent changes in some miRNAs (e.g.,miR-155, -146a, -326, -21, and -181). Specific miRNAs expressed by cells of theimmune system and resident cells of tissues can repress the synthesis of keyproteins, thereby contributing to the development of the autoimmuneinflammatory response at different stages(Fig. 4). Thesestages include an inflammatory reaction; activation of antigen-presenting cells(APCs); recognition of an antigen by specific lymphocyte receptors;differentiation of CD4+ T cells into different subsets; functioning of Tregcells; production of various cytokines; tranduction of the signal into residentcells of various tissues in response to inflammatory cytokines; additionalrecruitment of inflammatory cells by chemokines and cytokines; formation ofgerminal centers of B cells and switching of immunoglobulin isotypes; as wellas some mechanisms of tissue damage not mediated by immune cells.


MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

The role of miRNAs in autoimmune inflammation (modified from[35]).APCs are antigen-presenting cells; Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; FDCs are follicular dendritic cells.See text for more details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837569&req=5

Figure 4: The role of miRNAs in autoimmune inflammation (modified from[35]).APCs are antigen-presenting cells; Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; FDCs are follicular dendritic cells.See text for more details.
Mentions: Analysis of the miRNA profile in AID patients revealed numerous disruptions ofmiRNA expression[35-37],with the most frequent changes in some miRNAs (e.g.,miR-155, -146a, -326, -21, and -181). Specific miRNAs expressed by cells of theimmune system and resident cells of tissues can repress the synthesis of keyproteins, thereby contributing to the development of the autoimmuneinflammatory response at different stages(Fig. 4). Thesestages include an inflammatory reaction; activation of antigen-presenting cells(APCs); recognition of an antigen by specific lymphocyte receptors;differentiation of CD4+ T cells into different subsets; functioning of Tregcells; production of various cytokines; tranduction of the signal into residentcells of various tissues in response to inflammatory cytokines; additionalrecruitment of inflammatory cells by chemokines and cytokines; formation ofgerminal centers of B cells and switching of immunoglobulin isotypes; as wellas some mechanisms of tissue damage not mediated by immune cells.

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus