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MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The role of miRNAs in the differentiation of T and B cells(modified from [28]).Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; Foxp3, T-bet, GATA3, and RORγtare transcription factors required for the normal developmentof various T helper cell subsets. See the text for details.
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Figure 3: The role of miRNAs in the differentiation of T and B cells(modified from [28]).Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; Foxp3, T-bet, GATA3, and RORγtare transcription factors required for the normal developmentof various T helper cell subsets. See the text for details.

Mentions: MiRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of the development anddifferentiation of T and B cells(Fig. 3). For example,disruption of miRNA processing in T cells caused by a deletion of theDicer gene reduces the amount of thymocytes and increasestheir apoptosis at an early developmental stage [23].The lack of Dicer or AGO2 proteins disrupts differentiation of B cells atdifferent stages and changes the spectrum of secreted antibodies[24, 25].Furthermore, Dicer deficiency is supposed to affect the program of V(D)J-recombinationin developing B cells [25]. At the same time,naive T cells with reduced miRNA expression and production of the AGO2 protein differentiatemore rapidly into effector T cells [26].


MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

The role of miRNAs in the differentiation of T and B cells(modified from [28]).Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; Foxp3, T-bet, GATA3, and RORγtare transcription factors required for the normal developmentof various T helper cell subsets. See the text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837569&req=5

Figure 3: The role of miRNAs in the differentiation of T and B cells(modified from [28]).Th1, Th2, and Th17 are T helper cells;Treg are regulatory T cells; Foxp3, T-bet, GATA3, and RORγtare transcription factors required for the normal developmentof various T helper cell subsets. See the text for details.
Mentions: MiRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of the development anddifferentiation of T and B cells(Fig. 3). For example,disruption of miRNA processing in T cells caused by a deletion of theDicer gene reduces the amount of thymocytes and increasestheir apoptosis at an early developmental stage [23].The lack of Dicer or AGO2 proteins disrupts differentiation of B cells atdifferent stages and changes the spectrum of secreted antibodies[24, 25].Furthermore, Dicer deficiency is supposed to affect the program of V(D)J-recombinationin developing B cells [25]. At the same time,naive T cells with reduced miRNA expression and production of the AGO2 protein differentiatemore rapidly into effector T cells [26].

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus