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MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MiRNA biogenesis. A. The canonical pre-miRNA pathway produces pre-miRNAs through cleavageof pri-miRNA transcripts by the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex. B. The non-canonicalpathway. Mirtrons are spliced and debranched by the Ldbr enzyme, after which they foldinto pre-miRNA hairpins. Then, the pathways merge. The green box indicates a miRNA gene;exons 1 and 2 are exons of the host gene encoding intronic miRNA.
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Figure 1: MiRNA biogenesis. A. The canonical pre-miRNA pathway produces pre-miRNAs through cleavageof pri-miRNA transcripts by the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex. B. The non-canonicalpathway. Mirtrons are spliced and debranched by the Ldbr enzyme, after which they foldinto pre-miRNA hairpins. Then, the pathways merge. The green box indicates a miRNA gene;exons 1 and 2 are exons of the host gene encoding intronic miRNA.

Mentions: MiRNA genes are transcribed in the nucleus, primarily by RNA polymerase II, asa primary miRNA (pri-miRNA), which is a long transcript (from a few hundred totens of thousands of nucleotides)(Fig. 1). The primarymiRNA is then converted into a miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) by the Drosha-DGCR8microprocessor complex (canonical pathway) [6].There are also several other non-canonical pathways ofpremiRNA production, one of which is the formation of a pre-miRNA duringsplicing of short hairpin introns (mirtrons), followed by cleaving of pre-miRNAby the Ldbr protein [7]. Then, the miRNAbiogenesis pathways merge, and the pre-miRNA is processed in the cytoplasm bythe Dicer enzyme (RNase III) to form a miRNA duplex, with one of the duplexchains being involved in the formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex(RISC) (Fig. 1).


MicroRNAs: The Role in Autoimmune Inflammation.

Baulina NM, Kulakova OG, Favorova OO - Acta Naturae (2016 Jan-Mar)

MiRNA biogenesis. A. The canonical pre-miRNA pathway produces pre-miRNAs through cleavageof pri-miRNA transcripts by the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex. B. The non-canonicalpathway. Mirtrons are spliced and debranched by the Ldbr enzyme, after which they foldinto pre-miRNA hairpins. Then, the pathways merge. The green box indicates a miRNA gene;exons 1 and 2 are exons of the host gene encoding intronic miRNA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837569&req=5

Figure 1: MiRNA biogenesis. A. The canonical pre-miRNA pathway produces pre-miRNAs through cleavageof pri-miRNA transcripts by the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor complex. B. The non-canonicalpathway. Mirtrons are spliced and debranched by the Ldbr enzyme, after which they foldinto pre-miRNA hairpins. Then, the pathways merge. The green box indicates a miRNA gene;exons 1 and 2 are exons of the host gene encoding intronic miRNA.
Mentions: MiRNA genes are transcribed in the nucleus, primarily by RNA polymerase II, asa primary miRNA (pri-miRNA), which is a long transcript (from a few hundred totens of thousands of nucleotides)(Fig. 1). The primarymiRNA is then converted into a miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) by the Drosha-DGCR8microprocessor complex (canonical pathway) [6].There are also several other non-canonical pathways ofpremiRNA production, one of which is the formation of a pre-miRNA duringsplicing of short hairpin introns (mirtrons), followed by cleaving of pre-miRNAby the Ldbr protein [7]. Then, the miRNAbiogenesis pathways merge, and the pre-miRNA is processed in the cytoplasm bythe Dicer enzyme (RNase III) to form a miRNA duplex, with one of the duplexchains being involved in the formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex(RISC) (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators.This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action.Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ostrovityanova St., 1, Moscow, 117997, Russia ; Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, 3-rd Cherepkovskay St., 15a, Moscow, 121552 , Russia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through base-pairing predominantly with a 3'-untranslated region of target mRNA, followed by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Totally, miRNAs change, through a complex regulatory network, the expression of more than 60% of human genes. MiRNAs are key regulators of the immune response that affect maturation, proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immune cells, as well as antibody secretion and release of inflammatory mediators. Disruption of this regulation may lead to the development of various pathological conditions, including autoimmune inflammation. This review summarizes the data on biogenesis and the mechanisms of miRNA action. We discuss the role of miRNAs in the development and the action of the immune system, as well as in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory response. Special attention is given to the role of miRNAs in the autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis, which is a serious socially significant disease of the central nervous system. Currently, a lot of research is focused on this problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus