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Age, period and cohort effects on adult physical activity levels from 1991 to 2011 in China.

Zang J, Ng SW - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2016)

Bottom Line: For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time.Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline.Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an increasing number of participants who have or are likely to lower their PA levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: To date no work has differentiated the effects of age, period, and cohort on physical activity (PA) among Chinese adults, while also considering biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors over time.

Methods: We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2011 (20 years). The outcomes of interest are metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from work and domestic activities. Age, individual characteristics, household size, asset ownership, urbanization were included as covariates. Analyses for adult (≥20y) males (n = 29,343) and females (n = 31,094) was conducted to explicitly assess differences in PA due to age vs period effects, and implicitly assess differences by cohorts due to the period-specific experiences across individuals of varying ages.

Results: The mean age of the sample rose from 41.31 to 50.8 years and PA decreased from 427.75 ± 264.35 MET hours per week (MET-hr/wk) in 1991 to 245.99 ± 206.65 MET-hr/wk in 2011, with much steeper declines for women compared to men. For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time. Controlling for age effects, negative period effects on PA were observed in each survey year, and were substantial from 1993 to 2000 for males and from 1993 to 2011 for females. The interaction between survey year and age (P < 0.05) were observed from 2004 to 2011. Higher community urbanicity, vehicle ownership, TV and computer ownership, overweight and obese, higher education served as negative predictors. Bicycle ownership, bigger household size, non-professional jobs, being married and having more children (for women) were positive predictors of PA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline.

Conclusion: This study followed a large cohort of adults over a significant portion of their lives. Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an increasing number of participants who have or are likely to lower their PA levels. These trends suggest that tackling the rapid PA decline among its population is of high priority for China's public health outlook as its population ages and continues to experience significant economic and environmental changes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Age trends in mean work and domestic PA among adult women in the CHNS by baseline age groups (MET-hrs/wk). Notes: Points represent mean work & domestic PA level of women at the mean age for the age group in each survey year (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011). The vertical dotted line illustrates the difference in estimated PA level for a 45-year old woman in 1991 compared to a 45-year old woman in 2001, and 45-year old woman in 2011 (cohort effect)
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Fig3: Age trends in mean work and domestic PA among adult women in the CHNS by baseline age groups (MET-hrs/wk). Notes: Points represent mean work & domestic PA level of women at the mean age for the age group in each survey year (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011). The vertical dotted line illustrates the difference in estimated PA level for a 45-year old woman in 1991 compared to a 45-year old woman in 2001, and 45-year old woman in 2011 (cohort effect)

Mentions: Mean work and domestic PA of women in four age groups is shown in Fig. 3. Unlike men, women between 25 and 45y had comparable levels of work and domestic PA initially, while 55y women had lower baseline PA levels (the first point for each line). Nonetheless, work and domestic PA levels declined across all baseline age groups with age, and the decline for women is much starker than for men. Again, the relationship between age and mean work and domestic PA is non-linear. The cohort effect is also stronger among women (compared to men), as a 45-year old woman in 1991 expends 507 MET-hrs/wk compared to the 226 MET-hrs/wk a 45-year old woman in 2011 expends.Fig. 3


Age, period and cohort effects on adult physical activity levels from 1991 to 2011 in China.

Zang J, Ng SW - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2016)

Age trends in mean work and domestic PA among adult women in the CHNS by baseline age groups (MET-hrs/wk). Notes: Points represent mean work & domestic PA level of women at the mean age for the age group in each survey year (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011). The vertical dotted line illustrates the difference in estimated PA level for a 45-year old woman in 1991 compared to a 45-year old woman in 2001, and 45-year old woman in 2011 (cohort effect)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837527&req=5

Fig3: Age trends in mean work and domestic PA among adult women in the CHNS by baseline age groups (MET-hrs/wk). Notes: Points represent mean work & domestic PA level of women at the mean age for the age group in each survey year (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011). The vertical dotted line illustrates the difference in estimated PA level for a 45-year old woman in 1991 compared to a 45-year old woman in 2001, and 45-year old woman in 2011 (cohort effect)
Mentions: Mean work and domestic PA of women in four age groups is shown in Fig. 3. Unlike men, women between 25 and 45y had comparable levels of work and domestic PA initially, while 55y women had lower baseline PA levels (the first point for each line). Nonetheless, work and domestic PA levels declined across all baseline age groups with age, and the decline for women is much starker than for men. Again, the relationship between age and mean work and domestic PA is non-linear. The cohort effect is also stronger among women (compared to men), as a 45-year old woman in 1991 expends 507 MET-hrs/wk compared to the 226 MET-hrs/wk a 45-year old woman in 2011 expends.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time.Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline.Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an increasing number of participants who have or are likely to lower their PA levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: To date no work has differentiated the effects of age, period, and cohort on physical activity (PA) among Chinese adults, while also considering biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors over time.

Methods: We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2011 (20 years). The outcomes of interest are metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from work and domestic activities. Age, individual characteristics, household size, asset ownership, urbanization were included as covariates. Analyses for adult (≥20y) males (n = 29,343) and females (n = 31,094) was conducted to explicitly assess differences in PA due to age vs period effects, and implicitly assess differences by cohorts due to the period-specific experiences across individuals of varying ages.

Results: The mean age of the sample rose from 41.31 to 50.8 years and PA decreased from 427.75 ± 264.35 MET hours per week (MET-hr/wk) in 1991 to 245.99 ± 206.65 MET-hr/wk in 2011, with much steeper declines for women compared to men. For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time. Controlling for age effects, negative period effects on PA were observed in each survey year, and were substantial from 1993 to 2000 for males and from 1993 to 2011 for females. The interaction between survey year and age (P < 0.05) were observed from 2004 to 2011. Higher community urbanicity, vehicle ownership, TV and computer ownership, overweight and obese, higher education served as negative predictors. Bicycle ownership, bigger household size, non-professional jobs, being married and having more children (for women) were positive predictors of PA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline.

Conclusion: This study followed a large cohort of adults over a significant portion of their lives. Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an increasing number of participants who have or are likely to lower their PA levels. These trends suggest that tackling the rapid PA decline among its population is of high priority for China's public health outlook as its population ages and continues to experience significant economic and environmental changes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus