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A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy.

Hearne E, Grund JP, Van Hout MC, McVeigh J - Harm Reduct J (2016)

Bottom Line: The resulting physical health consequences of injecting these crude substances are very severe in comparison to heroin or amphetamine acquired in black markets.Due to this fact and the increased mortality associated with these substances, professionals in the area of prevention, treatment, and policy development need to be cognisant of the presentation, harms, and the dangers associated with home-produced substances globally.The Internet underpins the facilitation of this practice as recipes, and diverted pharmaceutical sales are available widely online, and currently, ease of access to the Internet is evident worldwide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland. ehearne@wit.ie.

ABSTRACT
Several home-produced substances such as krokodil and boltushka are prevalent in many Eastern European countries. Anecdotal reports of its use have been circulating in Germany and Norway; however, this has not been confirmed. Its use has also been reported by the media in the USA, although only one confirmed report of its use exists. Home-produced drugs are associated with high levels of morbidity and a number of complex health issues such as the spread of blood borne viruses, gangrene, and internal organ damage. The high incidence of HIV rates amongst people who inject home-produced substances is a public health concern. The resulting physical health consequences of injecting these crude substances are very severe in comparison to heroin or amphetamine acquired in black markets. Due to this fact and the increased mortality associated with these substances, professionals in the area of prevention, treatment, and policy development need to be cognisant of the presentation, harms, and the dangers associated with home-produced substances globally. This scoping review aimed to examine existing literature on the subject of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes. The review discussed the many implications such research may have in the areas of policy and practice. Data were gathered through the use of qualitative secondary resources such as journal articles, reports, reviews, case studies, and media reports. The home production of these substances relies on the utilisation of precursor drugs such as less potent stimulants, tranquillizers, analgesics, and sedatives or natural plant ingredients. The Internet underpins the facilitation of this practice as recipes, and diverted pharmaceutical sales are available widely online, and currently, ease of access to the Internet is evident worldwide. This review highlights the necessity of prevention, education, and also harm reduction related to home-produced drugs and also recommends consistent monitoring of online drug fora, online drug marketplaces, and unregulated pharmacies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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Mentions: The phenomenon of homemade drug use continues to influence Eastern European drug culture (see Fig. 2) [53]. Early 2011 saw a remarkable escalation in the number of reports in the media of the use of a new homemade drug known as “krokodil” (Russian: крокодил), also “Russian Magic”, “crocodile”, or by its chemical name “Desomorphine” [19, 20]. Research has shown that this home-produced opiate first appeared in Russia around 2002/2003 [19, 20, 23], although Czech drug cooks also modestly produced a drug from codeine based analgesics in the 1980s, known as “braun” or “brown” due to its colour [1, 2] (see Table 2) [16].Fig. 2


A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy.

Hearne E, Grund JP, Van Hout MC, McVeigh J - Harm Reduct J (2016)

Summary map
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837500&req=5

Fig2: Summary map
Mentions: The phenomenon of homemade drug use continues to influence Eastern European drug culture (see Fig. 2) [53]. Early 2011 saw a remarkable escalation in the number of reports in the media of the use of a new homemade drug known as “krokodil” (Russian: крокодил), also “Russian Magic”, “crocodile”, or by its chemical name “Desomorphine” [19, 20]. Research has shown that this home-produced opiate first appeared in Russia around 2002/2003 [19, 20, 23], although Czech drug cooks also modestly produced a drug from codeine based analgesics in the 1980s, known as “braun” or “brown” due to its colour [1, 2] (see Table 2) [16].Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The resulting physical health consequences of injecting these crude substances are very severe in comparison to heroin or amphetamine acquired in black markets.Due to this fact and the increased mortality associated with these substances, professionals in the area of prevention, treatment, and policy development need to be cognisant of the presentation, harms, and the dangers associated with home-produced substances globally.The Internet underpins the facilitation of this practice as recipes, and diverted pharmaceutical sales are available widely online, and currently, ease of access to the Internet is evident worldwide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland. ehearne@wit.ie.

ABSTRACT
Several home-produced substances such as krokodil and boltushka are prevalent in many Eastern European countries. Anecdotal reports of its use have been circulating in Germany and Norway; however, this has not been confirmed. Its use has also been reported by the media in the USA, although only one confirmed report of its use exists. Home-produced drugs are associated with high levels of morbidity and a number of complex health issues such as the spread of blood borne viruses, gangrene, and internal organ damage. The high incidence of HIV rates amongst people who inject home-produced substances is a public health concern. The resulting physical health consequences of injecting these crude substances are very severe in comparison to heroin or amphetamine acquired in black markets. Due to this fact and the increased mortality associated with these substances, professionals in the area of prevention, treatment, and policy development need to be cognisant of the presentation, harms, and the dangers associated with home-produced substances globally. This scoping review aimed to examine existing literature on the subject of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes. The review discussed the many implications such research may have in the areas of policy and practice. Data were gathered through the use of qualitative secondary resources such as journal articles, reports, reviews, case studies, and media reports. The home production of these substances relies on the utilisation of precursor drugs such as less potent stimulants, tranquillizers, analgesics, and sedatives or natural plant ingredients. The Internet underpins the facilitation of this practice as recipes, and diverted pharmaceutical sales are available widely online, and currently, ease of access to the Internet is evident worldwide. This review highlights the necessity of prevention, education, and also harm reduction related to home-produced drugs and also recommends consistent monitoring of online drug fora, online drug marketplaces, and unregulated pharmacies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus