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Nitrogen hurdle of host alternation for a polyphagous aphid and the associated changes of endosymbionts.

Liu YH, Kang ZW, Guo Y, Zhu GS, Shah MM, Song Y, Fan YL, Jing X, Liu TX - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: Low proportion of essential amino acids (EAAs) is one of the barriers for animals to use phloem as a diet.In this study, we transferred the insects from a cabbage-reared Myzus persicae population onto 3 new plant species including eggplant, tobacco and spinach.We found that the EAAs ratio in phloem was largely determined by the concentrations of non-essential amino acids and the higher proportion of EAAs seemed to favor the population establishment on new plant species and the growth of primary endosymbionts inside insects, which indicated that nitrogen quality was an important factor for aphids to infest and spread on new plant hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on the Loess Plateau of Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100 China.

ABSTRACT
Low proportion of essential amino acids (EAAs) is one of the barriers for animals to use phloem as a diet. Endosymbionts with EAAs synthesis functions are considered crucial for ameliorating the lack of EAAs in insects' diets. In this study, we transferred the insects from a cabbage-reared Myzus persicae population onto 3 new plant species including eggplant, tobacco and spinach. The performance on these plants was evaluated and the dynamics of endosymbionts in relation to this host alternation were recorded. We found that the EAAs ratio in phloem was largely determined by the concentrations of non-essential amino acids and the higher proportion of EAAs seemed to favor the population establishment on new plant species and the growth of primary endosymbionts inside insects, which indicated that nitrogen quality was an important factor for aphids to infest and spread on new plant hosts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Performance of cabbage-reared Myzus persicae on different plant species.(a) Developmental time (days for aphids to reach the adult stage). (b) Survival rate (percentage of aphids survived to the adult stage). (c) Adult weight (mg). (d) Fecundity (the number of offspring laid per adult). (e) Total longevity (total number of days aphids lived) Different letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different treatments (P < 0.05).
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f1: Performance of cabbage-reared Myzus persicae on different plant species.(a) Developmental time (days for aphids to reach the adult stage). (b) Survival rate (percentage of aphids survived to the adult stage). (c) Adult weight (mg). (d) Fecundity (the number of offspring laid per adult). (e) Total longevity (total number of days aphids lived) Different letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different treatments (P < 0.05).

Mentions: Overall, cabbage-reared aphids can establish on all three new plant species, i.e., eggplant, tobacco and spinach, but the performance was different. Interestingly, the performance was better on one of the new plant species, i.e., eggplant, than on cabbage (Fig. 1). Extraordinarily, in contrast to those on cabbage, the larval developmental time on eggplant was about 4 days less (P < 0.001) but the insects gained 33% more weight (F3,131 = 13.369, P < 0.001) (Fig. 1a,b). Aphid adults on spinach were also significantly heavier than those on cabbage in spite of a similar developmental time. No differences in developmental time and adult weight were found between those reared on tobacco and cabbage but the survival rate was significantly lower on tobacco than on cabbage (Fig. 1c). In contrast, the survival rate of aphids on eggplant was significantly higher than that on spinach (P = 0.03), both of which were similar to that on cabbage. Fecundity was the highest on eggplant and the lowest on spinach although the adults weighed similarly between eggplant and spinach (Fig. 1b,d). Total longevity of aphids on eggplant, tobacco and spinach was similar and significantly lower than that on cabbage (Fig. 1e).


Nitrogen hurdle of host alternation for a polyphagous aphid and the associated changes of endosymbionts.

Liu YH, Kang ZW, Guo Y, Zhu GS, Shah MM, Song Y, Fan YL, Jing X, Liu TX - Sci Rep (2016)

Performance of cabbage-reared Myzus persicae on different plant species.(a) Developmental time (days for aphids to reach the adult stage). (b) Survival rate (percentage of aphids survived to the adult stage). (c) Adult weight (mg). (d) Fecundity (the number of offspring laid per adult). (e) Total longevity (total number of days aphids lived) Different letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different treatments (P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837378&req=5

f1: Performance of cabbage-reared Myzus persicae on different plant species.(a) Developmental time (days for aphids to reach the adult stage). (b) Survival rate (percentage of aphids survived to the adult stage). (c) Adult weight (mg). (d) Fecundity (the number of offspring laid per adult). (e) Total longevity (total number of days aphids lived) Different letters above the bars indicate significant difference among different treatments (P < 0.05).
Mentions: Overall, cabbage-reared aphids can establish on all three new plant species, i.e., eggplant, tobacco and spinach, but the performance was different. Interestingly, the performance was better on one of the new plant species, i.e., eggplant, than on cabbage (Fig. 1). Extraordinarily, in contrast to those on cabbage, the larval developmental time on eggplant was about 4 days less (P < 0.001) but the insects gained 33% more weight (F3,131 = 13.369, P < 0.001) (Fig. 1a,b). Aphid adults on spinach were also significantly heavier than those on cabbage in spite of a similar developmental time. No differences in developmental time and adult weight were found between those reared on tobacco and cabbage but the survival rate was significantly lower on tobacco than on cabbage (Fig. 1c). In contrast, the survival rate of aphids on eggplant was significantly higher than that on spinach (P = 0.03), both of which were similar to that on cabbage. Fecundity was the highest on eggplant and the lowest on spinach although the adults weighed similarly between eggplant and spinach (Fig. 1b,d). Total longevity of aphids on eggplant, tobacco and spinach was similar and significantly lower than that on cabbage (Fig. 1e).

Bottom Line: Low proportion of essential amino acids (EAAs) is one of the barriers for animals to use phloem as a diet.In this study, we transferred the insects from a cabbage-reared Myzus persicae population onto 3 new plant species including eggplant, tobacco and spinach.We found that the EAAs ratio in phloem was largely determined by the concentrations of non-essential amino acids and the higher proportion of EAAs seemed to favor the population establishment on new plant species and the growth of primary endosymbionts inside insects, which indicated that nitrogen quality was an important factor for aphids to infest and spread on new plant hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on the Loess Plateau of Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100 China.

ABSTRACT
Low proportion of essential amino acids (EAAs) is one of the barriers for animals to use phloem as a diet. Endosymbionts with EAAs synthesis functions are considered crucial for ameliorating the lack of EAAs in insects' diets. In this study, we transferred the insects from a cabbage-reared Myzus persicae population onto 3 new plant species including eggplant, tobacco and spinach. The performance on these plants was evaluated and the dynamics of endosymbionts in relation to this host alternation were recorded. We found that the EAAs ratio in phloem was largely determined by the concentrations of non-essential amino acids and the higher proportion of EAAs seemed to favor the population establishment on new plant species and the growth of primary endosymbionts inside insects, which indicated that nitrogen quality was an important factor for aphids to infest and spread on new plant hosts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus