Limits...
Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils.

Katra I, Gross A, Swet N, Tanner S, Krasnov H, Angert A - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use.The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km(-2)) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production.Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Be'er-Sheva, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s(-1)), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km(-2), that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km(-2)) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The experimental plots in typical land uses of semi-arid loess soils in the northern Negev: natural reserve (N), grazing area (G), conventional (C) and organic (O) agricultural fields.The annual average rainfall is ~200 mm. Rain events occur mainly between November and March. Winds are mainly western and can exceed 12 m s−1. The soil texture is mostly silt-loam (USDA). The boundary-layer wind tunnel was used for studying the dust emission (see more details in the text). The tunnel segments are presented in the air-push configuration. Instruments were installed in the test section for measuring winds and particle transport. The map produced by ArcGIS 10.0 (www.esri.com). All the photographs were taken in the northwestern Negev (Israel) by I.K.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837371&req=5

f1: The experimental plots in typical land uses of semi-arid loess soils in the northern Negev: natural reserve (N), grazing area (G), conventional (C) and organic (O) agricultural fields.The annual average rainfall is ~200 mm. Rain events occur mainly between November and March. Winds are mainly western and can exceed 12 m s−1. The soil texture is mostly silt-loam (USDA). The boundary-layer wind tunnel was used for studying the dust emission (see more details in the text). The tunnel segments are presented in the air-push configuration. Instruments were installed in the test section for measuring winds and particle transport. The map produced by ArcGIS 10.0 (www.esri.com). All the photographs were taken in the northwestern Negev (Israel) by I.K.

Mentions: An example of the results obtained from the aeolian experiments is presented in Fig. 2. The results show differences in PM10 concentrations between the non-disturbed topsoils (Nn, Gn, Cn, On) at wind velocity of ~7 m s−1. The peak PM10 concentrations of the grazing plot (Gn) (43.2 mg m−3) were about 6 times higher than those in the natural plot (Nn), consistent with the aggregation results of the bulk samples in which lower MWD values were found in G plots (Table 1). The difference in PM10 values between the agricultural plots (O and C) was much smaller (22.5 and 27 mg m−3, respectively). Although the MWD values were lower in the agricultural plots compared to G or N (Table 1), the stubble remaining after the harvest and before the soil tillage enabled a better protection of the topsoil from wind erosion and thus lower PM10 emission rates were found in the agricultural plots than in the grazing plot (G). The measured PM10 concentrations (Fig. 2) were converted into PM10 fluxes from the soil (kg km−2 min−1) for all the experimental conditions (Table 2). In N and G plots, the PM10 fluxes were calculated for two wind velocities (4.5 m s−1 and 7.0 m s−1). The PM10 fluxes increased significantly due to the short-term surface disturbance in the natural and grazing plots (Nd and Gd). However the highest fluxes were calculated for the agricultural plots (Table 2) with mechanical tillage (Cd and Cc) and grazing intensities (Om and Os). The cultivator teeth (Cc) operate near the soil surface (8–10 cm) whereas the disk (Cd) operates in a deeper layer beneath the soil surface (10–15 cm) where it turns and mixes soil layers, thus leaving less stubble on the soil surface that protects the soil from erosion and emitting more dust21.


Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils.

Katra I, Gross A, Swet N, Tanner S, Krasnov H, Angert A - Sci Rep (2016)

The experimental plots in typical land uses of semi-arid loess soils in the northern Negev: natural reserve (N), grazing area (G), conventional (C) and organic (O) agricultural fields.The annual average rainfall is ~200 mm. Rain events occur mainly between November and March. Winds are mainly western and can exceed 12 m s−1. The soil texture is mostly silt-loam (USDA). The boundary-layer wind tunnel was used for studying the dust emission (see more details in the text). The tunnel segments are presented in the air-push configuration. Instruments were installed in the test section for measuring winds and particle transport. The map produced by ArcGIS 10.0 (www.esri.com). All the photographs were taken in the northwestern Negev (Israel) by I.K.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837371&req=5

f1: The experimental plots in typical land uses of semi-arid loess soils in the northern Negev: natural reserve (N), grazing area (G), conventional (C) and organic (O) agricultural fields.The annual average rainfall is ~200 mm. Rain events occur mainly between November and March. Winds are mainly western and can exceed 12 m s−1. The soil texture is mostly silt-loam (USDA). The boundary-layer wind tunnel was used for studying the dust emission (see more details in the text). The tunnel segments are presented in the air-push configuration. Instruments were installed in the test section for measuring winds and particle transport. The map produced by ArcGIS 10.0 (www.esri.com). All the photographs were taken in the northwestern Negev (Israel) by I.K.
Mentions: An example of the results obtained from the aeolian experiments is presented in Fig. 2. The results show differences in PM10 concentrations between the non-disturbed topsoils (Nn, Gn, Cn, On) at wind velocity of ~7 m s−1. The peak PM10 concentrations of the grazing plot (Gn) (43.2 mg m−3) were about 6 times higher than those in the natural plot (Nn), consistent with the aggregation results of the bulk samples in which lower MWD values were found in G plots (Table 1). The difference in PM10 values between the agricultural plots (O and C) was much smaller (22.5 and 27 mg m−3, respectively). Although the MWD values were lower in the agricultural plots compared to G or N (Table 1), the stubble remaining after the harvest and before the soil tillage enabled a better protection of the topsoil from wind erosion and thus lower PM10 emission rates were found in the agricultural plots than in the grazing plot (G). The measured PM10 concentrations (Fig. 2) were converted into PM10 fluxes from the soil (kg km−2 min−1) for all the experimental conditions (Table 2). In N and G plots, the PM10 fluxes were calculated for two wind velocities (4.5 m s−1 and 7.0 m s−1). The PM10 fluxes increased significantly due to the short-term surface disturbance in the natural and grazing plots (Nd and Gd). However the highest fluxes were calculated for the agricultural plots (Table 2) with mechanical tillage (Cd and Cc) and grazing intensities (Om and Os). The cultivator teeth (Cc) operate near the soil surface (8–10 cm) whereas the disk (Cd) operates in a deeper layer beneath the soil surface (10–15 cm) where it turns and mixes soil layers, thus leaving less stubble on the soil surface that protects the soil from erosion and emitting more dust21.

Bottom Line: The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use.The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km(-2)) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production.Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Be'er-Sheva, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s(-1)), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km(-2), that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km(-2)) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus